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HARVARD COtXEGE LliBAinr 

FROH THE UMAtY OF 

PROFESSOR HOIATIO STEVENS WHITE 

JUNE 12, 1935 



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INTRODUCTION. 



There are many expressions which, though 
simple in themselves, must forever remain 
beyond the grasp of human comprehension. 
Eternity, that which has neither end nor be- 
ginning, baffles the most profound human 
thought. It is impossible to think of a point 
beyond which there is absolutely nothing, or 
to imagine the passing of a million years 
without bringing us one day or one minute 
nearer to their close. Suppose that one 
could fix upon the terminal point, we would 
still fancy something beyond that, and then 
some period still more remote would present 
itself, and so on ad infinitum. 

The same insurmountable difficulty con- 
fronts us when we seek to imagine a First 
Cause. God was the beginning, and yet it 
seems to our finite minds, that something' 



4 INTRODUCTION. 

must have brought Him into existence, 
and we conclude that back again of that cre- 
ating Power must have been another origi- 
nating cause, and perhaps stUl another, and 
so on without limitation. 

And yet we know that there must have 
been a period when everything was void, or, 
in other words, when there was nothing. In 
the awful grandeur of that loneliness, deso- 
lation, and chaos, God we know, however, 
existed and called the universe into being. 
All that we, in our present finite condition, 
can ever comprehend of that stupendous birth 
is contained in the opening of the first chap- 
ter of Genesis. ^ 

That is the story of the creation as told by 
God Himself to His chosen people, the He- 
brews, they alone being selected from the 
nations then existing upon the earth to re- 
ceive the wonderful revelation. 

Every people, no matter how degraded 
and sunken in barbarism, has some percep- 
tion, some explanation of, and a more or less 
well-grounded belief in, a First Cause. Far 
back among the mists of antiquity, at the 



INTRODUCTION. 5 

remotest beginnings of the shadowy centu- 
ries, sits enthroned a Being, who in His in- 
finite might and power brought mankind, 
the universe, and all animate and inanimate 
things into existence, and who rewards those 
of His children who do His will, and pun- 
ishes those who disobey His commands. 
That will, as interpreted by believers, is as 
various in its application to the conduct of 
man as are the standards of right and wrong 
among the civilized and even among the 
barbarous nations of to-day. What is virtue 
with one is vice with the other, as beauty 
and ugliness of form or feature, being rela- 
tive terms, are opposites with many different 
peoples. 

Since the Greeks and Romans were not 
among those who received the divine story 
of creation, they were forced to devise a the- 
ory to explain their own existence and ac- 
count for the origin of all things. The 
foundation of this theory lay in the marvel- 
ous phenomena of nature around them. 
The growth of the mighty tree from the tiny 
seed,^ the bursting bud and blossom, the 



6 INTRODUCTION. 

changing hues and the fragrance of flowers, 
the alternation of day and night, the flash of 
the rock-rending lightning, the rage of the 
tempest, the flow of the rivers ; the towering 
mountains, the lovely valleys; dew, rain, 
the clouds, and the ever-shifting panorama 
on every hand; the majestic sweep of the 
blazing worlds through space — all these 
pointed unerringly to a First Cause, which 
originally launched them into being, and 
maintains the constant order of things and 
the miraculous procession of the planets and 
the orderly succession ot the seasons in obe- 
dience to laws that know no change. 

To the Greeks and Romans, there was a 
time more remote than history gives us any 
account of, when there was neither land nor 
water, and when the earth and all things 
within and upon it were " without form and 
void." Over that misty, nebulous mixing 
and mingling brooded the god Chaos, who 
shared his throne with Nox, the godder>s of 
night. From this union the innumerable 
myths gradually sprang up and developed, 
which in their own imaginative though 



INTRODUCTION. J 

often grotesque way explained the various 
phases of creation. These finally became 
crystallized into a literature, or mythology, 
which has since been the inspiration alike 
of romancers and poets. 

The most learned of raythologists differ in 
their analysis of the multitude of myths that 
have descended to us. Their varying analy- 
ses, however, may be separated into two dis- 
tinct classes or divisions, each of which has 
its own adherents and supporters. 

The first school is that of the philologists, 
and the second that of the anthropologists, 
or comparative mythologists. 

Philology relates to the study of language, 
especially when treated in a philosophical 
manner. This school maintains that the 
myths had their origin in a " disease of the 
language, as the pearl is a result of a disease 
of the oyster." The key, therefore, to all 
mythologies, they say, is found in language. 
The names originally applied to the gods 
generally referred to the phenomena of the 
clouds, winds, rain, sunshine, etc. Latin, 
Gr^ek, and Sanskrit, the great languages of 



8 INTRODUCTION, 

antiquity, they demonstrate, had their foun, 
dation in a single source which is still older. 
As further proof of their position, they point 
to the similarity in the most ordinary words 
in the various languages of the same family, 
and show that they have undergone few or 
very trifling changes. 

The greatest authority among the philol- 
ogists claims that during the "first period" 
there was a tribe in Central Asia, whose 
language consisted of one-syllable words, 
which contained the germs of the Turanian, 
Aryan, and Semitic tongues. This age is 
termed the Rhematic period, and was suc- 
ceeded by the Nomadic or Agglutinative 
age, during which the language gradually 
" received, once for all, that peculiar impress 
of their formative system which we still find 
in all the dialects and national idioms com- 
prised under the name of Aryan or Semitic," 
which includes over three thousand dialects. 

The same authority follows the Agglutina- 
tive period with one "represented every- 
where by the same characteristic features, 
called the Mythological, or Mythopoeic age." 



INTRODUCTION. 9 

As the name implies, this last-mentioned 
period saw the evolution and development of 
mythic lore. As do the American Indians of 
to-day, so primitive man, in his crude way, 
explained the operation of physical laws by 
giving to inanimate objects like passions and 
sentiments with himself. When the tem- 
pest rages, and the crashing lightning splin- 
ters the mountain oak, the Indian says that 
the' Great Spirit is angry. When nature be- 
comes serene and calm, the Great Spirit is 
pleased. The malign forces around him, 
which work ill to the warrior, are, they say, 
the direct doings of an evil spirit. Even the 
heavenly bodies are personified, and " poetry 
has so far kept alive in our minds the old 
animative theor}'- of nature, that it is no 
great effort in us to fancy the waterspout a 
huge giant or sea-monster, and to depict, in 
what we call appropriate metaphor, its march 
across the field of ocean." 

Since the names of the Greek heroes and 
gods show a general correspondence with the 
Sanskrit appellations of physical things, it is 
comparatively easy to understand many of 



lO INTRODUCTION. 

the first fancies and reflections of the earliest 
men who ever lived. It is the argument of 
the philologists that these fancies and reflec- 
tions settled into definite shape in that far- 
away period when most of the nations, now 
spread to the remotest corners of the earth, 
dwelt together and used a common language. 
Following the gradual scattering of this sin- 
gle, unified people, the language became sen- 
sitive to the change, many words not only 
losing their original meaning, but, in some 
instances, acquiring an opposite significance. 
Other words, again, in the course of time 
were utterly lost. " As long as such personi- 
fied beings as the Heaven or the Sun are 
consciously talked of in mythic language, 
the meaning of their legends is open to no 
question, and the action ascribed to them 
will, as a rule, be natural and appropriate." 
The time came, however, when these names 
were considered simply as applying to heroes 
or deities, and amid the jumble and confu- 
sion of the succeeding ages it became well- 
nigh impossible to trace the myths back to 
their original source and meaning. Such is 



INTRODUCTION. II 

a brief outline of the myth interpretations, 
as made by the philologists. 

Anthropology may be defined as the study 
of man, considered in his entire nature. In 
explaining mythology, the anthropologists 
say that " it is man, it is human thought and 
human language combined, which naturally 
and necessarily produced the strange con- 
glomerate of ancient fable." Instead, there- 
fore, of seeking the source of myths in lan- 
guage, the second class find it in the " condi- 
tion of thought through which all races have 
passed." 

The argument of the anthropologists is that 
while all nations have come from one parent- 
stock, as is claimed also by the philologists, 
yet the various peoples, in their primi- 
tive or savage state, have passed through a 
like low intellectual condition and growth. . 
The folk-lore of all countries shows that the 
savages consider themselves of the same na- 
ture as beasts, and regard " even plants, in- 
animate objects, and the most abstract phe- 
nomena as persons with human parts and 
passions." Every religion antedating Chris- 



12 INTRODUCTION. 

tianity has inculcated the worship of idols, 
which usually take the form of beasts, and 
it will be noted in the study of myths that 
the gods often assume the forms of birds and 
animals. If it were in our power mentally 
to become savages for a time, so as to look 
upon nature and our surroundings as do the 
Blackfeet Indians, or the Patagonians, or the 
South Africans, it would be a long step 
toward making clear this particular phase of 
the question. 

From what has been stated, however, the 
young student will gain an idea of the mean- 
ing of the word "myth," which may be 
termed a story whose origin can never be 
known with certainty. To most people it 
has the same significance as a fable, legen- 
dary tale, or fanciful falsehood. A collec- 
tion of myths belonging to a particular age 
or people is "a mythology," and the branch 
of inquiry which classifies and interprets 
them bears the same name. 

E. S. E. 

NOYBMBBR IST, 1896. 



THE YOUTH'S 
DICTIONARY OF MYTHOLOGY. 



Abas, a son of Meganira, was turned into a newt, 
or water-lizard, for deriding the ceremonies 
of the Sacrifice. 

Absy'rtus. After Jason had slain the dragon 
which guarded the golden fleece, he fled with 
Medea, the beautiful young sorceress, and 
daughter of JEetes, who pursued with great 
energy, for Medea had taken with her the 
most precious treasure of the king, his only 
son and heir, Absyrtus. To delay the pur- 
suit, Medea slew her little brother, cut the 
body in pieces, and dropped them over the 
side of the vessel. Thus the cruel daughter 
effected her escape. 

Achelo'us was a river god, and the rival of Her- 
cules in his love for Deianeira. To decide 
who should have the bride, Hercules and 
Achelous had recourse to a wrestling bout, the 
fame of wnich extends through all the inter- 
vening centuries. In this fierce struggle, 
Achelous chainged himself into the form of a 



14 tHE youth's 

bull and rushed upon his antagonist with 
lowered horns, intending to hurl him aside. 
Hercules eluded the onset, and seizing one of 
the huge horns, held it so firmly that it was 
broken off by the furious efforts of Achelous 
to free himself. He was defeated, and finally 
turned himself into a river, which has since 
been known by his name. 
Acheron (see "The Youth's Classical Diction- 
ary"). The current of the river Acheron, 
across which all souls had to pass to hear their 
decree from Pluto, was so swift that the bold- 
est swimmer dare not attempt to breast it; 
and, since there was no bridge, the spirits 
were obliged to rely upon the aid of Charon, 
an aged boatman, who plied the only boat 
that was available. He would allow no soul 
to enter this leaky craft until he had received 
the obolus, or fare, which the ancients care- 
fully placed under the tongue of the dead, 
that they might not be delayed in their pas- 
sage to Pluto. Those who had not their fare 
were forced to wait one hundred years, when 
Charon reluctantly ferried them over without 
cbarge. 

" Infernal rivers that disgorge 
Into the burning lake their baleful streams. 
. . . Sad Acheron, of sorrow bJack and deep." 

Milton. 

Achil'les was the most valiant of the Greek heroes 

in the Trojan War. He was the son of Peleus, 

' King of Thessaly. His . mother, Thetis, 



DICTIONARY OF MYTHOLOGY. 1 5 

plunged him, when an infant, into the Stygian 
pool, which made him invulnerable wherever 
the waters had washed him ; but the heel by 
which he was held was not wetted, and that 
part remained vulnerable. He was shot with 
an arrow in the heel by Paris, at the siege of 
Troy, and died of his wound. 

Acidalia, a name given to Venus, from a foun- 
tain in Bceotia. 

A'cis. A Sicilian shepherd, loved by the nymph 
Galatear. One of the Cyclops who was jealous 
of him crushed him by hurling a rock on him. 
Galatea turned his blood into a river— the 
Acis at the foot of Mount Etna. 

Actae'on was the son of Aristseus, a famous hunts- 
man. He intruded himself on Diana while 
she was bathing, and was changed by her into 
a deer, in which form he was hunted by his 
own dogs and torn in pieces. 

A'des, see Hades. 

Ado'niSy the beautiful attendant of Venus, who 
held her train. He was killed by a boar, and 
turned by Venus 4nto an anemone. 

** Even as the sun with purple-colored face 
Had ta'en his last leave of the weeping^ morn, 
Rose-cheeked Adonis hied him to the chase; 
Hunting he loved, but love he laughed to scorn." 

Shakespeare. 

Adrastse'a, another name of Nemesis, one of the 
goddesses of justice. 



i6 THE YOUTH S 

Adscripti'tii Dii were the gods of the second 

grade. 
Adversity, see Echidna. 
^'acuSy one of the judges of hell, with Minos 

and Rhadamauthus. See Eacus. 
.^cas'tor, an oath used only by women, referring 

to the Temple of Castor. 
^d'epol, an oath used by both men and women, 

referring to the Temple of Pollux. 
JEe'tes, a king of Colchis, and father of Medea, 
^ge'on, a giant with fifty heads and one hundred 

hands, %vno was imprisoned by Jupiter under 

Mount Etna. See Briareus. 
i£'gis, the shield of Jupiter, so called because it 

was made of goat-skin. 

"Where was thine JEgis Pallas that appall'd?" 

Byron. 

" Tremendous, Gorgon frowned upon its field, 
And circling terrors filled the expressive shield. 
"Full on the crest the Gorgon's head they place, 
With eyes that roll in death, and with distorted face.'* 

Pope. 

i£'gle. The fairest of the Naiads. 

Ael'lo, the name of one of the Harpies. 

^ne'as was the son of Anchises and Venus. He 
was one of the few great captains who escaped 
the destruction of Troy. He behaved with 
great valor during the siege, encountering 
Diomed, and even Achilles himself. When 
the Grecians had set the city on fire -^neas 



DICTIONARY OF MYTHOLOGY. 1 7 

took his aged father, Anchises, on his shoul- 
ders, while his son. Ascanius, and his wife, 
Creusa, clung to his garments. He saved 
them all from the flames. After wandering 
about during several years, encountering 
numerous difficulties, he at length arrived in 
Italy, where he was hospitably received by 
Latinus, king of the Latins. After the death 
of Latinus ^neas became king. 

"His back, or rather burthen, showed 
As if it stooped with its load; 
For as uSneas bore his sire 
Upon his shoulders through the fire, 
Our knight did bear no less a pack 
Of his own buttocks on his back." 

Butler. 

^o'lus was the god of the winds. Jupiter was 
his reputed father, and his mother is said to 
have been a daughter of Hippotus. ^olus is 
represented as having the power of holding 
the winds confined in a cavern, and occasion- 
ally giving them liberty to blow over the 
world. So much command was he supposed 
to have over them that when Ulysses visited 
him on his return from Troy he gave him, 
tied up in a bag, all the winds that could pre- 
vent his voyage from being prosperous. The 
companions of Ulysses, fancying that the bag 
contained treasure, cut it open just as they 
came in sight of Ithaca, the port they were 
making for, and the contrary winds rushing 
out drove back the ship many leagues. The 
2 



l8 THE youth's 

residence of ^olus was at Strongyle, now 
called Strom bolo. 

" ^olua from his airy throne 
With power imperial curbs the struggrlins: winds, 
And sounding tempests in dark prisons binds.'* 

Dryden. 

Ascula'pitts, the god of physic, was a son of 
Apollo. He was physician to the Argonauts 
in their famous expedition to Colchis. He 
became so noted for his cures that Pluto be- 
came jealous of him, and he requested Jupiter 
to kill him with a thunderbolt. To revenge 
his son's death Apollo slew the Cyclops who 
had forged the thunderbolt. By his marriage 
with Epione he had two sons, Machaon and 
Podalirus, both famous physicians, and four 
daughters, of whom Hygeia, the goddess of 
health, is the most renowned. Many temples 
were erected in honor of .^sculapius, and 
votive tablets were hung therein by people 
who had been healed by him ; but his most 
famous shrine was at Epidaurus, where, 
every five years, games were held in his 
honor. This god is variously represented, 
but the most famous statue shows him seated 
on a throne of gold and ivory. His head is 
crowned with rays, and he wears a long 
beard. A knotty stick is in one hand, and a 
staff entwined with a serpent is in the other, 
while a dog lies at his feet. 

" Thou that dost ^sculapius deride, 
And o'er his gallipots in triumph ride.'* 

Fenton 



DICTIONARY OF MYTHOLOGY. I9 

JE'son was father of Jason, and was restored to 
youth by Medea. 

Agamem'non was the son of Plisthenes and 
brother of Menelaus. He was king of the 
Argives. His brother's wife was the famous 
Helen, daughter of Tyndarus, king of Sparta ; 
and when she eloped with Paris, Agamemnon 
was appointed leader of the Greeks in their 
expedition against Troy. 

Aganip'pides, a name of the Muses, derived from 
the fountain of Aganippe. 

Agine'tts, see Apollo. 

Agla'ia was one of the Three Graces. 

Ag'ni. The Hindoo god of lightning. 

AJax was one of the bravest of the Greek war- 
riors in the Trojan War. His father was Tel- 
amon, and his mother Eriboea. Some writers 
say that he was killed by Ulysses; others 
aver that he was slain by Paris ; while others 
again assert that he went mad after being 
defeated by Ulysses, and killed himself. An- 
other Ajax, son of Oileus. also took a promi- 
nent part in the Trojan War. 

Alces'tis, wife of Admetus, who, to save her hus- 
band's life, died in his stead, and was re- 
stored to life by Hercules. 

Alci'des, one of the names of Hercules. 

Alcme'na, the mother of Hercules, was daughter 
of Electryon, a king of Argos. 



20 THE YOUTH S 

Alec'to was one of the Furies. She is depicted 
as having serpents instead of hair on her bead , 
and was supposed to breed pestilence where- 
ever she went. 

Alec'tryon, a servant of Mars, who was changed 
by him into a cock because he did not warn his 
master of the rising of the sun. 

Alfadur, in Scandinavian Mythology the Supreme 
Being— Father of all. 

Al'ma Mammo'sa, a name of Ceres. 

Alphe'us, a river god. See Arethusa. 

Altar. A structure on which a sacrifice was 
offered. The earliest altars were merely 
heaps of earth or turf or rough unhewn stone ; 
but as the mode of sacrificing became more 
ceremonious grander altars were built. Some 
were of marble and brass, ornamented with 
carvings and bas-reliefs, and the comers with 
models of the heads of animals. They varied 
in height from two feet to twenty, and some 
were built solid ; others were made hollow to 
retain the blood of the victims. Some were 
provided with a kind of dish, into which 
frankincense was thrown to overpower the 
smell of burning fat. This probably was the 
origin of the custom of burning incense at the 
altar. 

Amarthse'a, the goat which nourished Jupiter, 

Am'azons were a nation of women-soldiers who 
lived in Scythia. Hercules totally defeated 




See page 20. 



Amazon. 



DICTIONARY OF MYTHOLOGY. * 21 

them, and gave Hippolyte, their queen, to 
Theseus for a wife. The race seems to have 
been exterminated after this battle. 

Ambarva'lia were festivals in honor of Ceres, in- 
stituted by Roman husbandmen to purge their 
fields. At the spring festival the head of each 
family led an animal, usually a pig or ram, 
decked with oak boughs, round his grounds, 
and offered milk and new wine. After har- 
vest there was another festival, at which 
Ceres was presented with the first-fruits of the 
season. See Ceres. 

Amber, see Heliades. 

Ambro'sia were Bacchanalian festivals. 

Ami'ca, a name of Venus. 

Amphi'on was the son of Jupiter and Antiope. 
He was greatly skilled in music; and it is 
said that, at the sound of his lute, the stones 
arranged themselves so regularly as to make 
the walls of the city of Thebes. 

" Amphion, too, as story goes, could call 
Obedient stones to make the Theban wall.*' 

Horace. 

" New walls to Thebes, Amphion thus began." 

William King. 

" Such strains I sing as once Amphion played. 
When list'ning flocks the powerful call obeyed." 

Elphinston. 

Amphitri'te (or Salatia), the wife of Neptune, 



22 THE YOUTH S 

was a daughter of Ocean us and Tethys. She 
was the mother of Triton, a sea god. 

" His weary chariot sought the bowers 
Of Amphitrite and her tending nymphs." 

Thomson. 

Amy'cus was king of Bebrycia. He was a son of 
Neptune, and was killed by Pollux. 

Ancae'us. A son of Neptune, who left a cup of 
wine to hunt a wild boar which killed him, 
and the wine was untasted. This was the 
origin of the proverb— "There's many a slip 
'twixt cup and lip. " 

Ancil'la, the twelve sacred shields. The first 
Ancile was supposed to have fallen from 
heaven in answer to the prayer of Numa 
Pompilius. It was kept with the greatest 
care, as it was prophesied that the fate of the 
Roman people would depend upon its preser- 
vation. An order of priesthood was estab- 
lished to take care of the Ancilia. and on ist 
March each year the shields were carried in 
procession, and in the evening there was a 
great feast, called Ccena Saliaris. 

Androm'eda, the daughter of Cepheus, king of 
the Ethiopians, was wife of Perseus, by whom 
she was rescued when she was chained to a 
rock and was about to be devoured by a sea- 
monster. 

Anem'one. Venus changed Adonis into this 
flower. 

An^ero'nia, otherwise Volupia, was the goddess 



DICTIONARY OF MYTHOLOGY. 23 

who had the power of dispelling anguish of 
mind. 

Anna Peren'na, one of the rural divinities. 

Antae'us, a giant who was vanquished by Her- 
cules. Each time that Hercules threw him 
the giant gained fresh strength from touching 
the earth, so Hercules lifted him off the 
ground and squeezed him to death. 

An'teros, one of the two Cupids, sons of Venus. 

Antic'lea, the mother of Ulysses. 

Anti'ope was the wife of Lycus, King of Thebes. 

Jupiter, disguised as a satyr, led her astray 

and corrupted her. 
Anu'bis (or Herman'ubis) . "A god half a dog, 

a dog half a man. " Called Barker by Virgil 

and other poets. 
Aon'ides, a name of the Muses, from the country 

Aonia. 
Apatur'ia, an Athenian festival, which received 

its name from a Greek word signifying deceit. 
Aph'rodi'te, a Greek name of Venus. 
Apis, a name given to Jupiter by the inhabitants 
' • of the Lower Nile. Also the miraculous ox, 

worshiped in Egypt. 
A'pis, King of Argivia. Afterward called Sera- 
pis, the greatest god of the Egyptians. 
Apol'lo. This famous god, some time King of 

Arcadia, was the son of Jupiter and Latona. 

He was known by several names, but princi- 



44 THE youth's 

pally by the following :— Sol (the sun) ; Cyn- 
thius, from the mountain called Cynthus in 
the Isle of Delos. and this same island being 
his native place obtained for him the name of 
Delius ; Delphinius, from his occasionally as- 
suming the shape of a dolphin. His name of 
Delphicus was derived from his connection 
with the splendid Temple at Delphi, where 
he uttered the famous oracles. Some writers 
record that this oracle became dumb when 
Jesus Christ was bom. Other common names 
of Apollo were Didymseus, Nomius, Psean, 
and Phoebus. The Greeks called him Agineus, 
because the streets were under his guardian- 
ship, and he was called Pythius from having 
killed the serpent Python. Apollo is usually 
represented as a handsome young man with- 
out beard, crowned with laurel, and having in 
one hand a bow, and in the other a lyre. The 
favorite residence of Apollo was on Mount 
Parnassus, a mountain of Phocis, in Greece, 
where he presided over the Muses. Apollo 
was the accredited father of several children, 
but the two most renowned were .^sculapius 
and Phaeton. 

" Wilt thou have music ? Hark ! Apollo plays. 
And twenty caged nightingales do sing." 

Shakespeare. 

Apothe'osis. The consecration of a god. The 
ceremony of deification. 

Arach'ne, a Lydian princess, who challenged 



DICTIONARY OF MYTHOLOGY. 25 

Minerva to a spinning contest, but Minerva 
struck her on the head with a spindle, and 
turned her into a spider. 

"... So her disemboweled web, 
Arachne, in a hall or kitchen spreads, 
Obvious to vagrant flies." 

John Phillips. 

Arca'dia, a delightful country in the center of 
Peloponnessus, a favorite place of the gods. 
Apollo was reputed to have been King of 
Arcadia. 

Ar'cas, a son of Calisto, was turned into a he- 
bear; and afterward into the constellation 
called Ursa Minor. 

Archer, see Chiron. 

Areop'agi'tae, the judges who sat at the Areopa- 
gus. ' 

Areop'agus, the hill at Athens where Mars was 
tried for murder before twelve of the gods. 

A 'res. The same as Mars, the god of war. 

Arethu'sa was one of the nymphs of Diana. She 
fled from Alpheus, a river god. and was en- 
abled to escape by being turned by Diana 
into a rivulet which ran underground. She 
was as virtuous as she was beautiful. 

Ar'gonauts. This name was given to the fifty 
heroes who sailed to Colchis in the ship Argo, 
under the command of Jason, to fetch the 
Golden Fleece. 

Ar'gus was a god who had a hundred eyes which 



26 THE youth's 

slept and watched by turns. He was charged 
by Juno to watch lo, but, being slain by Mer- 
cury, was changed by Juno into a peacock. 

Ariad'ne, daughter of Minos. King of Crete. 
After enabling Theseus to get out of the 
Labyrinth by means of a clew of thread, she 
fled with him to Naxos. where he ungratefully 
deserted her; but Bacchus wooed her and 
married her, and the crown of seven stars 
which he gave her was turned into a constel- 
lation. 

Ari'on was a famous lyric poet of Methymna, in 
the Island of Lesbos, where he gained great 
riches by his art. There is a pretty fable 
which has made the name of Arion famous. 
Once when traveling from Lesbos his com- 
panions robbed him, and proposed to throw 
him into the sea. He entreated the seamen 
to let him play upon his harp before they 
threw him overboard, and he played so 
sweetly that the dolphins flocked round the 
vessel. He then threw himself into the sea, 
and one of the dolphins took him up and car- 
ried him to Taenarus, near Corinth. For this 
act the dolphin was raised to heaven as a con- 
stellation. 

Aristae'us, son of Apollo and Cjrrene, was the god 
of trees ; he also taught mankind the use of 
honey, and how to get oil from olives. He 
was a celebrated hunter. His most famous 
son was Actseon. 



DICTIONARY OF MYTHOLOGY. 27 

Arma'ta, one of the names of Venus, given to her 
by Spartan women. 

Artemis. This was the Grecian name of Diana, 
and the festivals at Delphi were called Arte- 
misia. 

Arts and Sciences, see Muses. 

Arus'pices, sacrificial priests. 

AscaFaphus was changed into an owl, the har- 
binger of misfortune, by Ceres, because he 
informed Pluto that Proserpine had partaken 
of food in the infernal regions, and thus pre- 
vented her return to earth. 

Asca'nius, the son of ^neas and Creusa. 

Ascolia, Bacchanalian feasts, from a Greek word 
meaning a leather bottle. The bottles were 
used in the games to jump on. 

Aso'pus. A son of Jupiter, who was killed by 
one of his father's thunderbolts. 

Assabi'nus, the Ethiopian name of Jupiter. 

Ass's ears, see Midas. 

Astar'te, one of the Eastern names of Venus. 

Aste'ria, daughter of Caeus, was carried away by 
Jupiter, who assumed the shape of an eagle. 

Astre'a, mother of Nemesis, was the goddess of 
justice; she returned to heaven when the 
earth became corrupt. 

"... Chaste Astrea fled, 
And sought protection in her native sky.*' 

John Hughes. 



iS THE youth's 

Atal&n'ta was daughter of Cseneus. The oracle 
told her that marriage would be fatal to her, 
but, being very beautiful, she had many 
suitors. She was a very swift runner, and, 
to get rid of her admirers, she promised to 
marry any one of them who should outstrip 
her in a race, but that all who were defeated 
should be slain. Hippomenes. however, with 
the aid of Venus, was successful. That god- 
dess gave him three golden apples, one of 
which he dropped whenever Atalanca caught 
up to him in the race. She stopped to pick 
them up, and he was victorious and married 
her. They were both afterward turned into 
lions by Cybele, for profaning her temple. 

A'te. The goddess of revenge, also called the 
goddess of discord and all evil. She was 
banished from heaven by her father Jupiter. 

'* With Ate by his side come hot from hell." 

Shakespeare. 

Athe'na, a name obtained by Minerva as the 
tutelary goddess of Athens. 

Atlas, was King of Mauritania, now Morocco, in 
Africa. He was also a great astronomer. 
He is depicted with the globe on his back, his 
name signifying great toil or labor. For his 
inhospitality to Perseus that king changed 
him into the mountain which bears his name 
of Atlas. A chain of mountains in Africa is 
called after him, and so is the Atlantic Ocean. 
He had seven daughters by his wife Pleione . 



DICTIONARY OF MYTHOLOGY. 29 

th«y were called by one common name. Plei- 
ades; and by his wife ^thra he had seven 
more, who were, in the same manner, called 
Hyades. Both the Pleiades and the Hyades 
are celestial constellations. 

At>«u8, the type of fraternal hatred. His dislike 
of his brother Thyestes went to the extent of 
killing and roasting his nephews, and inviting 
their father to a feast, which Thyestes thought 
was a sign of reconciliation, but he was the 
victim of his brother's detestable cruelty. 

*^ Media must not draw her murdering knife, 
Nor Atreus there his horrid feast prepare. " 

Lord Roscommon. 

At'ropos, one of the three sisters called The 
Fates, who held the shears ready to cut the 
thread of life. 

A'tys, son of Croesus, was bom dumb, but when 
in a fight he saw a soldier about to kill the 
king he gained speech, and cried out. **Save 
the king !" and the string that held his tongue 
was broken. 

A'tys was a youth beloved by Aurora, and was 
slain by her father, but, according to Ovid, 
was afterward turned into a pine-tree. 

Au^'aeas, a king of Elis, the owner of the stable 
which Hercules cleansed after three thousand 
oxen had been kept in it for thirty years. It 
was cleansed by turning the river Alpheus 
through it. Augaeas promised to give Her 



30 THE youth's 

cules a tenth part of his cattle for his trouble, 
but, for neglecting to keep his promise, Her- 
cules slew him . 

Augury. This was a means adopted by the 
Romans of forming a judgment of futurity by 
the flight of birds, and the officiating priest 
was called an augur. 

Aurora, the goddess of the morning, 

" Whose rosy fingers ope the gates of day.*' 

She was daughter of Sol, the sun, and was the 
mother of the stars and winds. She is repre- 
sented as riding in ;i splendid golden chariot 
drawn by white horses. The goddess loved 
Tithonus, and begged the gods to grant him 
immortality, but forgot to ask at the same 
time that he should not get old and decrepit. 
See Tithonus. 

"... So soon as the all-cheering sun 
Should, in the farthest east, begin to draw 
The shady curtains of Aurora's bed.*' > 

Shakespeare. 

Aus'ter, the south wind, a son of Jupiter. 

Aver'nus, a poisonous lake, referred to by poets 
as being at the entrance of the infernal 
regions, but it was really a lake in Campania, 
in Italy. 

Averrun'cus Deus, a Roman god, who could divert 
people from evil-doing. 

Axe, see Daedalus. 



DICTIONARY OF MYTHOLOGY. 3I 

Ba'al, a god of tlie Phoenicians. 

Ba'al-Pe'or, a Moabitish god, associated with 
licentiousness and obscenity. The modem 
name is Belphegor. 

Babes, see Rumina Dea. 

Bac'chant'^s. The priestesses of Bacchus. 

Bacchus, the god of wine, was the son of Jupiter 
and Semcle. He is said to have married 
Ariadne, daught:jr of Minos, King of Crete, 
after she was deserted by Theseus. The . 
most distinguished of his children is Hymen, 
the god of marriage. * Bacchus is sometimes 
referred to under the names of Dionysius, 
Biformis, Brisseus, lacchus, Lenseus, Lyceus, 
Liber, and Liber Pater, the symbol of liberty. 
The god of wine is usurily represented as 
crowned with vine and ivy leaves. In his left 
hand is a thyrsus, a kind of javelin, having a 
fir cone for the head, and being encircled with 
ivy or vine. His chariot is drawn by lions, 
tigers, or panthers. 

** Jolly Bacchus, god of pleasure, 
Charmed the world with drink and dances." 

T. Parnell, 1700. 

Ba'lios. A famous horse given by Neptune to 
Peleus as a wedding present, and was after- 
ward given to Achilles. 

Barker, see Anubis. 

Bassar'ides. The priestesses of Bacchus were 
sometimes so called. 



32 THE YOUTH 8 

Battle, see Valhalla. 

Bear, see Calisto. 

Beauty, see Venus. 

Bees, see Mellona. 

Belisa'ma, a goddess of the Gauls. The name 
means the Queen of Heaven. 

Beller'ophon, a hero who destroyed a monster 
called the Chimaera. 

Bello'na, the goddess of war, and wife of Mars. 
The 24th March was called Bellona's Day, 
when her votaries cut themselves with knives 
and drank the blood of the sacrifice. 

**In DirsB's and in Discord's steps Bellona treads, 
And shakes her iron rod above their heads." 

Belphe'gor, see Baal-Peor. 

Be'lu8. The Chaldean name of the sun. 

Berecyn'thia, a name of Cybele, from a mountain 

where she was worshiped. 
Bi'formis, a name of Bacchus, because he was 

accounted both bearded and beardless. 
Birds, see Augury. 
Births, see Lucina and Levana. 
Blacksmith, see Brontes and Vulcaa. 
Blind, see Thanyris. 
Blue eyes, see Glaukopis. 
Bo'na De'a. "The bountiful goddess," whose 

festival was celebrated by the Romans with 

much magnificence. See Ceres. 



DICTIONARY OF MYTHOLOGY. 33 

Bo'nus Even'tus. The god of good success, a 

rural divinity. 
Bo'reas, the north wind, son of. Astraeus and 

Aurora. 

"... I snatched her from the rigid north, 
Her native bed, on which bleak Boreas blew, 
And bore her nearer to the sun. . . ." 

Young, 1710. 

Boundaries, see Terminus. 

Boxing, see Pollux. 

Brah'ma. The great Indian deity, represented 
with four heads looking to the four quarters 
of the globe. 

Bri'areus, a famous giant. See ^geon. 

Bris'aeus. A name of Bacchus, referring to the 
use of grapes and honey. 

Bront'es, one of the Cyclops. He is the personi- 
fication of a blacksmith. 

Bubo'na, goddess of herdsmen, one of the rural 
divinities. 

Bud'dha. Primitively, a pagan deity, the Vishnu 
of the Hindoos. 

Byb'lis. ,A niece of Sol, mentioned by Ovid. 
She shed so many tears for unrequited love 
that she was turned into a fountain. 

" Thus the Phoebeian Byblis, spent in tears. 
Becomes a living fountain, which yet bears 
Her name.'* OviD. 

Cab'iri. The mysterious rites connected with the 
worship of these deities were so obscene that 
3 



34 THE YOUTH S 

most writers refer to them as secrets which it 
was unlawful to reveal. 

Cac'odae'mon. The Greek name of an evil spirit. 

Ca'cus, a three-headed monster and robber. 

Cadmus, one of the earliest of the Greek demi- 
gods. He was the reputed inventor of letters, 
and his alphabet consisted of sixteen letters. 
It was Cadmus who slew the Boeotian dragon, 
and sowed its teeth in the ground, from each 
of which sprang up an armecj man. 

Cadu'ceus. The rod carried by Mercury. It has 
two winged serpents entwined round the top 
end. It was supposed to possess the power 
of producing sleep, and Milton refers to it in 
Paradise Lost as the "opiate rod." 

Calis'to, an Arcadian nymph, who was turned 
into a she-bear by Jupiter. Tn that form she 
was hunted by her son Areas, who would 
have killed her had not Jupiter turned him 
into a he-bear. The nymph and her son form 
the constellations known as the Great Bear 
and Little Bear. 

Calli'ope. The Muse who presided oVer epic 
poetry and rhetoric. She is generally de- 
picted using a stylus and wax tablets, the 
ancient writing materials. 

Carpe. One of the pillars of Hercules. 

Calyp'so was queen of the island of Ogj'gia, on 
which Ulysses was wrecked, and where he 
was persuaded to remain seven years. 



•DICTIONARY OF MYTHOLOGY. 35 

Ca'ma. The Indian god of love and marriage. 

Camirius, a name of Mercury, from his office of 
minister to the gods. 

Can'ache. The name of one of Actaeon's hounds. 

Cano'pus. The Egyptian god of water, the con- 
queror of fire. 

Cap'is or Cap'ula. A peculiar cup with ears, 
used in drinking the health of the deities. 

Capitoli'nus. A name of Jupiter, from the 
Capitoline hill, on the top of which a temple 
was built and dedicated to him. 

Cap'ri'pedes. Pan, the Egipans, the Satyrs, and 
Fauns, were so called from having goat's feet. 

Caproti'na. A name of Juno. 

Cassan'dra, a daughter of Priam and Hecuba, 
who was granted by Apollo the power of see- 
ing into futurity, but having offended that god 
he prevented people from believing her pre- 
dictions. 

Cassiope'ia. The Ethiopian queen who set her 
beauty in comparison with that of the Nerei- 
des, who thereupon chained her to a rock and 
left her to be devoured by a sea-monster, but 
she was delivered *by Perseus. See Andro- 
meda. 

Casta'lia. One of the fountains in Mount Par- 
nassus, sacred to the Muses. 

Casta'li'des, a name of the Muses, from the foun- 
tain Castalia or Castalius. 



36 THE youth's 

Cas'tor, son of Jupiter and Leda, twin brother of 
Pollux, noted for his skill in horsemanship. 
He went with Jason in quest of the Golden 
Fleece. 

Cau'ther, in Mohammedan mythology, is the lake 
of paradise, whose waters are as sweet as 
honey, as cold as snow, and as clear as crys- 
tal ; and any believer who tastes thereof is 
said to thirst no more. 

Cel'eno was one of the Harpies, progenitor of 
Zephyrus, the west wind. 

Cen'taur. A huntsman who had the forepart 
like a man, and the remainder of the body 
like ahorse. The Centauri lived in Thessaly. 

Cep'halus was married to Procris, whom he acci- 
dentally slew by shooting her while she was 
secretly watching him, he thinking she was a 
wild beast. Cephalus was the type of con- 
stancy. 

Cerau'nius. A Greek name of Jupiter, meaning 
The Fulminator, from his thunderbolts. 

Cer'berus. Pluto's famous three-headed dog, 
which guarded the gate of the infernal regions, 
preventing the living from entering, ana tne 
inhabitants from going out. 

** Three-headed Cerberus, by fate 
Posted at Pluto's iron gate; 
Low crouchingr rolls his haggard eyes, 
Ecstatic, and foregoes his prize." 

Ceremonies^ see Themi^. 




Apollo Belvedere, 



DICTIONARY OF MYTHOLOGY. 37 

Ce'res, daughter of Saturn, the goddess of agri- 
culture, and of the fruits of the earth. She 
taught Triptolemus how to grow corn, and 
sent him to teach the inhabitants of the earth. 
She was known by the names of Magna Dea, 
Bona Dea, Alma Mammosa, and Thesmor- 
phonis. Ceres was the mother of Proserpine. 
See Ambarvalia. 

" To Ceres bland, her annual rites be paid 
On the g:reen turf beneath the fragrant shade.— 
. . . Let all the hinds bend low at Ceres* shrine. 
Mix honey sweet for her with milk and mellow wine, 
Thrice lead the victim the new fruits around, 
On Ceres call, and choral hymns resound.'* 

** Ceres was she who first our furrows plowed, 
Who gave sweet fruits and every good allowed." 

POPE. 

Ces'tus, the girdle of Venus, which excited irre- 
sistible affection. 

Cha'os allegorically represented the confused 
mass of matter supposed to have existed be- 
fore the creation of the world, and out of 
which the world was formed. 

"... Behold the throne 
Of Chaos, and his dark pavilion spread 
Wide on the wasteful deep; with him enthroned 
Sat sable-vested Night, eldest of all things. 
The consort of his reign." 

Milton. 

Char'on was the son of Nox and Erebus. He was 
the ferryman who conveyed the spirits of the 
dead, in a boat, over the rivers Acheron and 
Styx to the Elysian Fields. "Charon's toll" 



38 THE youth's 

was a coin put into the hands of the dead with 
wtiich to pay the grim ferryman. 

** From the dark mansions of the dead, 
Where Charon with his lazy boat 
Ferries o'er Lethe's sedgy moat." 

Charyb'dis. A dangerous whirlpool on the coast 
of Sicily. Personified, it was supposed to 
have been a woman who plundered travelers, 
but was at last killed by Hercules. Scylla 
and Charybdis are generally spoken of to- 
gether to represent alternative dangers. 

'* Charybdis barks, and Polyphemus roars.*' 

Francis. 

Che'mos. The Moabitish god of war. 

Children, see Nundina. 

Chimae'ra. A wild illusion, personified in the 
monster slain by Bellerophon. It had the 
head and breast of a lion, the body of a goat, 
and the tail of a serpent. It used to vomit 

fire. 

..." And on the craggy top 
Chimera dwehs, with lion's face and mane, 
A goat's rough body and a serpent's train." 

Pope. 
" First, dire Chimera's conquest was enjoined, 
A mingled monster of no mortal kind. 
Behind, a dragon's fiery tail was spread, 
A goat's rough body bore a lion's head. 
Her pitchy nostrils flaky flames expire, 
Her gaping throat emits infernal Are.*' 

MiLTOW. 

Chiron, the centaur who taught Achilles hunting, 
music, and the use of medicinal herbs. Jupi* 



DICTIONARY OF MYTHOLOGY. 39 

ter placed him among the stars, where he ap- 
pears as Sagittarius, the Archer. 

Chlo'ris. The Greek name of Flora, the goddess 
of flowers. 

Chou. An Egyptian god corresponding to the 
Roman Hercules. 

Chro'nos. Time, the Grecian name of Saturn. 

Ciriaros, see Cyllaros. 

Cir'ce, daughter of the Sun. The knowledge of 
poisonous herbs enabled her to destroy her 
husband, the King of the Sarmatians, for 
which act she was banished. When Ulysses 
landed at Msea., where she lived, she turned 
all his followers into swine. 

Cisse'ta. The name of one of Actseon's hounds. 

Cither'ides. A name of the Muses, from Mount 
Citheron. 

Cli'o. One of the Muses, daughter of Jupiter 
and Mnemosyne. She presided over history. 

Cloaci'na. The Roman goddess of sewers. 

Clo'tho was one of the Fates. She was present 
at births, and held the distaff from which was 
spun the thread of life. See Atropos and 
Lachesis. 

Clowns of Ly'cia, The. were changed into frogs 
by Latona, because they refused to allow her 
to drink .at one of their streamlets. 

Clu'aci'na. A name of Venus, given to her at the 
time of the reconciliation of the Romans and 



4© THE YOUTH S 

the Sabines, which was ratified near a statue 
of the goddess. 

Cly'temnes'tra, wife of Agamemnon, slew her 
husband and married ^gisthus. She at- 
tempted to kill her son Orestes, but he was 
delivered by his sister Electra, who sent him 
away to Strophius. He afterward returned 
and slew both Clytemnestra and ^gisthus. 

Clyt'ie. A nymph who got herself changed into 
a sunflower because her love of Apollo was 
unrequited. In the form of this flower she is 
still supposed to be turning toward Sol, a 
name of Apollo. 

Cneph. In Egyptian mythology the creator of 
the universe. 

Cocy'tus, the river of Lamentation. One of the 
five rivers of the infernal regions. 

** Infernal rivers that disgorge 
Into the burning lake their baleful streams. 
. . . Cocytus, named of lamentation loud. 
Heard on the rueful stream.** MiLTON. 

Coe'culus, a violent robber, was a son of Vulcan. 
Cce'lus, also called Uranus (or Heaven) , was the 

most ancient of the gods. 
Cce'na Salia'ris, see Ancilia. 
Colli'na was one of the rural deities, the goddess 

of hills. 
Comedy, see Thalia. 
Co'mus was the god of revelry. He presided 

over entertainments and feasts* 



DICTIONARY OF MYTHOLOGY. 41 

.Con'cord. The symbol of Concord was two right 
hands joined, and a pomegranate. 

Cottcor'dia. The goddess of peace. One of the 
oldest Roman goddesses. She is represented 
as holding a horn of plenty in one hand, and 
in the other a scepter, from which fruit is 
sprouting forth. 

Constancy^ see Cephalus. 

Consu'alia. Games sacred to Neptune. 

Con'sus. A name given to Neptune as being the 
god of counsel. 

Cophe'tua. A legendary king of Africa, wha 
disliked women, but ultimately fell in love 
with a "beggar-maid,** as mentioned in Romeo 
and Juliet. 

"... Cupid, he that shot so trim 
When King: Cophetua loved the begrgar-maid.*' 

Shakespeare. 
Co'pia, the goddess of plenty. 

Co'ran. One of Actaeon's hounds was so named. 

Com, see Ceres. 

Cor'onis, was a consort of Apollo and mother of 
-^sculapius. Another Coronis was daughter 
of a king of Phocis, and was changed by 
Athena into a crow. 

Coryban'tes were priests of Cybele. They ob- 
tained the name because they were in the 
habit of striking themselves in their dances. 

Cory'don. A silly love-sick swain mentioned by 
Virgil. 



42 THE YOUTH 8 

Cory'thaiz. A name given to Mars. ineaniii|p . 

Shaker of the Helmet. 

Cotyt'to. The Athenian goddess of immodesty. 

** Hail I STodden of noctnniAl ftport. 
Dark-veiled Cotytto, to whom the secret flame 
0£ midnight torches burns ; mysterious dame.'* 

Milton. 
Counsel, see Consus. 

Creditors, see Jani. 

Crow, see Coronis. 

CultiTated Land, see Sylvester. 

Cup-bearer, see Ganymede. 

Cu'pid, the god of love, was the son of Jupiter and 

Venus. He is represented as a naked , winged 

boy, with a bow and arrows, and a torch. 

When he grew up to be a man he married 

Psyche. 

•* For Venus did but boast one only son, 
And rosy Cupid was that boasted one; 
He, uncontroird, thro' heaven extends his sway, 
And gods and goddeMet by turns obey. 

£USDEN, 17x3. 

Cuve'ra. The Indian god of wealth correspond- 
ing to the Greek Plutus. 

Cy'bele. The mother of the gods, and hence called 
Magna Mater. She was wife of Saturn. She 
is sometimes referred to under the names of 
Ceres. Rhea, Ops, and Vesta. She is repre- 
sented as riding in a chariot drawn by lions. 
In one hand she holds a scepter, and in the 
other a key. On her head is a castelated 



DICTIONARY OF MYTHOLOGY. 43 

crown, to denote that she was the first to pro- 
tect castles and walls with towers. 

•• Nor Cybele with half so kind an eye 
Surveyed her sons and daughters of the sky." 

DRYDBN. 
" Might she the wise Latona be, 
Or the towered Cybele, 
Mother of a hundred gods, 
Juno dares not give her odds." MiLTON. 

Cy'clops or Cy'clopes were the gigantic, one- 
eyed workmen of Vulcan, who made Jove's 
thunderbolts. Hesiod gives their names as 
ArgeSy Brontes, and Steropes. 

" Meantime, the Cyclop raging with his wound. 
Spreads his wide arms, and searches round and 
round." Pope. 

Cyg^nuSy the bosom friend of Phaeton. He died 

of grief on the death of his friend, and was 

turned into a swan. 
CyH'aros, one of Castor's horses. The color is 

mentioned as being coal-black, with white 

legs and tail. See Cillaros. 
Cyl'lo. The name^ of one of Actaeon's hounds, 

which was lame. 
Cyllop'otes. A name given to one of Actseon's 

hounds which limped. 
Cyn'osure. One of the nurses of Jupiter, turned 

by the god ii)to a conspicuous constellation. 

** Towers and battlements it sees 
Bosomed high in tufted trees, 
Where perhaps some beauty lies, 
The Cynosure of neighboring eyes." 

MILTON. 



44 THE youth's 

Cyparis'sus. A boy of whom Apollo was very 
fond; and when he died be was changed, a? 
Apollo's intercession, into a cypress tree, the 
branches of which typify mourning. 

Cy'press, see Cyparissus. 

Cy'pria. A name of Venus, because she was 
worshiped in the island of Cyprus. 

Cyth'era. A name of Venus, from the island to 
which she was wafted in the shell. 

Dacty'li were priests of Cybele. They were 
given the name, because, like the fingers, 
they were ten in number. 

Daed'alus was a great architect and sculptor. He 
invented the wedge, the axe, the level, and 
the gimlet, and was the first to use sails. 
Daedalus also constructed the famous laby- 
rinth for Minos, King of Crete. See Icarus. 

** Now Daedalus, behold, by fate assig:ned, 
A task proportioned to thy mighty mind.'* 

Pope. 

Da'gon. A god of the Philistines, half man half 
fish, like the mermaid. Milton describes him 
as "Upward man and downward fish." 

Da'hak. The Persian devil. 

Dai'tyas. In Hindoo mythology the devils or 
evil gods. 

Dan'ae was a daughter ot Acrisius'and Eurydice. 
She had a son by Jupiter, who was drifted out 
to sea in a boat, but was saved by Polydectes 
and educated. 



DtCtlONAkV Of MYtHOLOCY. 45 

Dana'ides, see Danaus. 

Dana'uSy King of Argos, was the father of fifty 
daughters, who, all but one, at the command 
of their father, slew their husbands directly 
after marriage. For this crime they were 
condemned to the task of forever trying to 
draw water with vessells without any bottoms. 
See Hypermnestra. 

Dancing, see Terpsichore. 

Dangers, see Charybdis, also Scylla. 

Daph'ne. The goddess of the earth*. Apollo 

courted her, but she fled from him, and was. 

at her own request, turned into a laurel tree. 

** . . . At Daphne was 
Root-bound, that fled Apollo." MiLTON. 

Dar'danus, a son of Jupiter, who built the city of 
Dardania, and by some writers was accounted 
the founder of Troy. 

Dead-toll, see Charon. 

Death, see Nox. 

Deceiver, The, see Apaturia. 

Deiani'ra, daughter of (Eneus, was wife of Her- 
cules. See Hercules. 

De'lius, a name of Apollo, from the island in 
which he was born. 

Del'phi. A town on Mount Parnassus, famous 
for its oracle, and for a temple of Apollo. 
See Delphos. 

Derphicus. A name of Apollo, from Delphi. 



46 THE youth's 

Del'phos, the place where the temple was built, 
from which the oracle of Apollo was given. 

De'marus. The Phoenician name of Jupiter. 

De'mogor'gon was the tyrant genius of the soil or 
earth, the life and support of plants. He 
was depicted as an old man covered with 
moss, and was said to live underground. He 
is sometimes called the king of the elves and 
fays. 

** Which wast begot in Demogorgon's hall 
And sa'w'st the secrets of the world unmade.'' 

Spenser. 

Deuca'lion, one of the demigods, son of Prome- 
theus and Pyrra. He and his wife, by mak- 
ing a ship, survived the deluge which Jupiter 
sent on the earth, circa 1503 b.c. 

Devil, see Dahak, Daityas, and Obambou. 

Di'ana, goddess of hunting and of chastity. She 
was the sister of Apollo, and daughter of 
Jupiter and Latona. She was known among 
the Greeks as Diana or Phoebe, and was hon- 
ored as a triform goddess. As a celestial di- 
vinity she was called Luna ; as a terrestrial 
Diana or Dictynna; and in the infernal re- 
gions Hecate. 

Dictyn'na, a Greek name of Diana as a terrestrial 
goddess. 

Di'do. A daughter of Belus, King of Tyre. It 
was this princess who bought a piece of land 
in Africa as large as could be encompassed by 



DICTIONARY OF MYTHOLOGY. 47 

a bullock's hide, and when the purchase was 
completed, cut the hide into strips, and so 
secured a large tract of land. Here she built 
Carthage ; and Virgil tells that when .^neas 
was shipwrecked on the neighboring coast 
she received him with every kindness, and at 
last fell in love with him. But -^neas did 
not reciprocate her affections, and this so 
grieved her that she stabbed herself. A tale 
is told in FaceticB Cantabrigienses of Profes- 
sor Porson, who being one of a set party, the 
conversation turned on the subject of pun- 
ning, when Porson observing that he could 
pun on any subject, a person present defied 
him to do so on the Latin gerunds, di^ do, 
dum, which, however, he immediately did 
in the following admirable couplet : 

" When Dido found ^neas would not come, 
She mourned in silence, and was Dido dumd."* 

Di'es Pa'ter, or Father of the Day, a name of 
Jupiter. 

Dii Selec'ti composed the second class of gods. 
They were CckIus, Saturn, Genius, Oreus, 
Sol, Bacchus, Terra, and Luna. 

Din'dyme'ne. A name of Cybele, from a moun- 
tain where she was worshiped. 

" Nor Dindymene, nor her priest pdssest. 
Can with their sounding cymbals shake the breast 
Like furious anger." FRANCIS. 

Diome'des, the cruel tyrant of Thrace, who fed 
bis mares on the flesh of his guests. He was 



48 THE youth's 

overcome by Hercules, and himself given to 
the same horses as food. 

Dio'ne. A poetic, name of Venus. 

Diony'sia were festivals in honor of Bacchus. 

Diony'sius. A name of Bacchus, either from his 
father Jupiter (Dios) , or from his nurses, the 
nymphs called Nysae. 

Dios'curi. Castor and Pollux, the sons of Jupiter. 

Di'rae. A name of the Furies 

Dis. A name of Pluto, god of hell, signifying 
riches. 

"... That fair field 
Of Enna, where Proserpine gathering flowers, 
Herself a fairer flower, by gloomy Dis 
Was gathered.'* MiLTON. 

Discord, see Ate. 

Discor'dia, sister of Nemesis, the Furies, and 

Death, was driven from heaven for having 

sown discord among the gods. 

Diseases, see Pandora. 

Distaff, see Pallas. 

Dithyrambus. A surname of Bacchus. 

Dodo'na was a celebrated oracle of Jupiter. 

" O where, Dodona, is thine aged grove, 
Prophetic fount, and oracle divine?*' 

Byron. 

Dodonae'us. A name of Jupiter, from the city of 

Dodona. 
Po^, see Lare§. 



DICTIONARY OF MYTHOLOGY. 49 

Dola'bra. The knife used by the priests to cut up 

the sacrifices. 
Dolphin, see Arion. 
Door'ga. A Hindoo goddess. 
Do'ris was daughter of Oceanus, and sister of 

Nereus, two of the marine deities. From 

these two sisters sprang the several tribes of 

water nymphs. 
Do'to. One of the Nereids or sea nymphs. 
Dra'co. One of Actseon's hounds. 
Dragon, seven-headed, see Geryon. 
Dreams, see Morpheus. 
Dry'ads were rural deities, the nymphs of the 

forests, to whom their votaries offered oil, 

milk, and honey. 

" Flushed with resistless charms he fired to love 
Bach nymph and little Dryad of the grove.*' 

TICKNELL. 

Dumb'ness, see Atys. 

Dweur'gar. Scandinavian god of the Echo^a 
pigmy. 

E'acus, son of Jupiter and Egina, one of the 
judges of the infernal regions, who was ap- 
pointed to judge the Europeans. See .^acus. 

Earth, see Antseas. 

Eb'lis, the Mohammedan evil genius. 

Echid'na. A woman having a serpent's tail. 
She was the reputed mother of Chimera, and 
also of the many-headed dog Orthos, of the 
4 



50 THE YOUTH'S 

three-hundred-headed drs^on of the Hesper- 
ides, of the Colchian dragon, of the Sphinx, 
of Cerberus, of Scylla, of the Gorgons. of the 
Lernaean Hydra, of the vulture that gnawed 
away the liver of Prometheus, and also of the 
Nemean lion ; in fact, the mother of all ad- 
versity and tribulation. 

Echno'bas, one of Actaeon's hounds. 

Echo was a nymph who fell in love with Narcis- 
sus. But when he languished and died she 
pined away from grief and died also, preserv- 
ing nothing but her voice, which repeats 
every sound that reaches her. Another fable 
makes Echo a daughter of Air and Tellus. 
She was partly deprived of speech by Juno, 
being allowed only to reply to questions. 

** Sweet Echo, sweetest nymph, that liv'st unseen 
Within thy airy shell. 

Sweet queen of parley, daughter of the sphere. 
So may'st thou be translated to the skies, 
^And give resounding grace to all heaven's har- 
monies." MILTON. 

** Oft by Echo's tedious tales misled." OviD. 

E^eon. A giant sea-god, who assisted the 
Titans against Jupiter. 

^ge'ria. A nymph who is said to have suggested 
to Numa all his wise laws. She became his 
wife, and at his death was so disconsolate, 
and shed so many tears, that Diana changed 
her into a fountain. 



DICTIONARY OF MYTHOLOGY. 51 

E'gil. The Vulcan of northern mythology. 

Egip'ans were rural deities who inhabited the for- 
ests and mountains, the upper half of the body 
being like that of a man, and the lower half 
like a goat. 

E'gis was the shield of Minerva. It obtained its 
name because it was covered with the skin of 
the goat Am^lthaea, which nourished Jupiter. 
See uEgis. 

Eleusin'ian Mysteries. Religious rites in honor 
of Ceres, performed at Eleusis, in Attica. 

Elys'ium, or the Elysian Fields. The temporary 
abode of the just in the infernal regions. 

Empyre'an, The. The fifth heaven, the seat of 
the heathen deity. 

Endym'ion. A shepherd, who acquired from Ju- 
piter the faculty of being always young. One 
of the lovers of Diana. 

Entertainments, see Comus. 

Envy, see Furies. 

Enyo was the Grecian name of Bellona, the god- 
dess of war and cruelty. 

E'olus, see ^olus. 

E'os. The Grecian name of Aurora. 

E'ous. One of the four horses which drew the 
chariot of Scl, the sun. The word is Greek, 
and means red. 

Eph'ial'tes. A giant who lost his right eye in an 
encounter with Hercules, and the left eye was 
destroyed by Apollo. 



5* Tttft Yduttt'd 

Br'ato. One of the Muses, the patroness of light 
poetry; she presided over the triumphs and 
complaints of lovers, and is generally repre- 
sented as crowned with roses and myrtle, and 
holding a lyre in her hand. 

Br'ebns, son of Chaos, one of the gods of Hades, 
sometimes alluded to as representing the in- 
fernal regions. 

Brga'tis. A name given to Minerva. It means 
the work- woman, and was given to the god- 
dess because she was credited with having 
invented spinning and weaving. 

Eric'theus, fourth King of Athens, was the son 
of Vulcan. 

Erin'nys. A Greek name of the Furies. It 

means Disturber of the Mind. 
Erisich'thon was punished with perpetual hunger 

because he defiled the groves of Ceres, and 

cut down one of the sacred oaks. 
Er'os. The Greek god of love. 
Eros' tratus. The rascal who burnt the temple of 

Diana at Ephesus, thereby hoping to make 

his name immortal. 
Eryc'ina. A name of Venus, from Mount Eryx 

in Sicily. 
Erythre'os. The 'Grecian name of one of the 

horses of Sol's chariot. 
Escula'pius, see ^sculapius. 
E ta, see ^etes. 



DICTIONARY OF MYTHOLOGY. 53 

E'thon, oDe of the horses who drew the chariot of 
Sol— the sun. The word is Greek, and signi- 
fies hot. 

Et'na. A volcanic mountain, beneath which, ac- 
cording to Virgil, there is buried the giant 
Typhon, who breathes forth devouring flames. 

Eu'dromos. The name of one of Actaeon's 
hounds. 

Eu'lalon, one of the names of Apollo. 

Eume'nides, a name of the Furies, meaning mild« 
and referring to the time when they were ap- 
proved by Minerva. 

Euphro'syne, one of the three Graces, see Graces. 

** Come, thou goddess fair and free, , 

In heaven ycleped Euphrosyne." 

Milton. 

Eu'nis. The east wind. A son of ^olus. 

Eury'ale was one of the Gorgons, daughter of 

Phorcus and Ceto. 
Euryd'ice, wife of Orpheus, who was killed by a 

serpent on her wedding night. 

** Nor yet the golden verge of day begun. 
When Orpheus Oier unhappy lord), 
Eurydice to life restored. 
At once beheld, and lost, and was undone." 

F. Lewis. 

Euryth'ion. A seven-headed dragon. See Ge- 
ryon. 

En'terpe, one of the Muses, the patroness of in- 
strumental music. The word means agree- 
able. 



54 THE YOUTH S 

Eu'vyhe, an expression meaning "Well done, 
son." Jupiter so frequently addressed his 
son Bacchus by those words that the phrase 
at last became one of his names. 

Evening Star, see Hesperus. 

Evil, see Cacodaemon. 

Evils, see Pandora. 

Eye, of one, see Cyclops and Glaukopis. 

Fame was a poetical deity, represented as having 
wings and blowing a trumpet. A temple was 
dedicated to her by the Romans. 

Fate, see Nereus. 

Fates, or Parcae, were the three daughters of 
Necessity. Their names were Clotho, who 
held the distaff; Lachesis, who turned the 
spindle; and Atropos, who cut the thread 
with the fatal shears. 

Faun. A rural divinity, half man and half goat. 
They were very similar to the Satyrs. The 
Fauns attended the god Pan, and the Satyrs 
attended Bacchus. 

Favo'nius. The wind favorable to vegetation, 
that is, Zephyr— the west wind. 

"... Time will run 
On smoother, till Favoncus reinspire 
The frozen earth, and clo'.he in fresh attire 
The lily and the rose, that neither sowed nor spun.*' 

Milton. 



DICTIONARY OF MYTHOLOGY. 55 

Fays. 

" The yellow-skirted Pays 
Fly after the night-steeds, 
Leaving their moon-loved maze/* 

Milton. 

Feasts, see Comus 

Fc'bris (fever) , one of the evil deities, was wor- 
shiped that she might not do harm. 

Feb'ruus. A name of Plato, from the part of the 
funeral rites which consisted of purifications. 

Fero'nia, the Roman goddess of orchards, was 
patroness of enfranchised slaves. Some au- 
thors think Feronia is the same as Juno. 

Fertility, see Lupercus. 

Festivals, see Thalia. 

Fidelity, see lolaus. 

Fi'des, the goddess of faith and honesty, and a 
temple in the Capitol of Rome. 

Fine Arts, see Minerva. 

Fire, see Salamander, Vesta, and Vulcan. 

Fire Insurance, see Canopus. 

Fisherman, see Glaucus. 

Flath'-in'nis, in Celtic mythology, is Paradise. 

Fleece, Golden, see Golden Fleece, Argonauts, 
and Jason. 

Flies, see Muscarius. 

Flocks, see Pales (goddess of pastures) . 

Flo'ra, goddess of flowers and gardens, was wife 
of Zephyrus. She enjoyed perpetual youth. 
Her Grecian name was Chloris. 



S6 THE youth's 

Flora'lia were licentious games instituted in 
honor of the goddess Flora. 

Flowers, see Flora, Chloris, Hortensis, and 

Zephyrus. 

Flute, see Marsyas. 

Fortu'na, the goddess of fortune, had a temple 
erected to her by Servius Tullius. She was 
supposed to be able to bestow riches or pov- 
erty on mankind, and was esteemed one of 
the most potent of the ancient goddesses. 
She is usually represented as standing on a 
r wheel, with a bandage over her eyes, and 
holding a cornucopia. 

Fraud, one of the evil deities, was represented as 
a goddess with a human face and a serpent's 
body, and at the end of her tail was a scor- 
pion's sting. She lived in the river Cocytus, 
and nothing but her head was ever seen. 

Frey'r. The Scandinavian god of fertility and 
peace. The patron god of Sweden and Ice- 
land. 

Frey'ja, The Scandinavian Venus. The goddess 
of love. 

Fri'ga. The Saxon goddess of earthly enjoy- 
ments. The name Friday is derived from 
her. In Scandinavian mythology she is the 
goddess of marriage. 

Fro. The Scandinavian god of tempests and 
winds. 

Frogs, see Clowns of Lycia. 




See page 5i. 



The Fates. 



DICTIONARY OF MYTHOLOGY. 57 

Fruits, see Ceres, and Pomona. 

Funerals, see Libitina, and Manes. 

Furies, The, were the three daughters of Acheron 
and Nox. They were the punishers of evil- 
doers. Their names were Tisiphone, Me- 
gaera, and Alecto, and were supposed to per- 
sonify rage, slaughter, and envy. 

Futurity, see Cassandra. 

Ga'briel, in Jewish mythology is the prince of fire 
and thunder, and the angel of death to the 
favored people of God. 

Galatae'a. A sea nymph. Polyphemus, one of 
the Cyclops, loved her, but she disdained his 
attentions and became the lover of Acis, a 
Sicilian shepherd. 

Gallan'tes, madmen, from Galli (which see). 

Gal'li were priests of Cybele who used to cut 
their arms with knives when they sacrificed, 
and acted so like madmen that demented 
people got the name of Gallantes. 

Gan'esa. The Indian Mercury. The god of 
wisdom and prudence. 

Ganga. One of the three Indian river goddesses. 

Ganymede, a beautiful Phrygian youth, son of 
Tros, King of Troy. He succeeded Hebe in 
the office of cup-bearer to Jupiter. He is 
generally represented sitting on the back of 
a flying eagle. 

Gardens, see Pomona (goddess of fruit-trees). 



58 THE youth's 

Gates, see Janus. 

Gau'tama (Buddha) . The chief deity of Burmah. 

Genii were domestic divinities. Every man was 
supposed to have two of these genii accom- 
panying him; one brought him happiness, 
the other misery. 

Gen'itor. A Lycian name of Jupiter. 

Geometry, see Mercury. 

Ge'ryon was a triple-bodied monster who lived 
at Gades, where his numerous flocks were 
guarded by Orthos, a two-headed dog, and 
by Eurythion, a seven -headed dragon. These 
guardians were destroyed by Hercules, and 
the cattle taken away. 

Gimlet, see Daedalus. 

Girdle, see Cestus (Venus 's) . 

Glau'cus was a fisherman who became a sea-god 
through eating a sea- weed, which he thought 
invigorated the fishes and might strengthen 
him. 

Glattko'pis. A name given to Minerva, because 
she had blue eyes. 

Gno'mes, a name given by Plato to the invisible 
deities who were supposed to inhabit the 
earth. 

Gnos'sis, a name given to Ariadne, from the city 
of Gnossus, in Crete. 

Goat, see Iphigenia, Mendes, and Venus. 

Goat's Feet, see Capripedes. 



DICTIONARY OP MYTHOLOGY. 59 

Golden Apple, see Atalanta. 

Golden Fleece, The, was a ram's hide, sometimes 
described as white, and at other times as pur- 
ple and golden. It was given to Phryxus, who 
carried it to Colchis, where King -^etes en- 
tertained Phryxus, and the hide was hung up 
in the grove of Mars. Jason and forty-nine 
companions fetched back the golden fleece. 
See Argonauts. 

Gopy'a. Indian mythological nymphs. 

Gor'gons, The, were three sisters, named Stheno, 
Euryale, and Medusa. They petrified every 
one they looked at. Instead of hair their 
heads were covered with vipers. Perseus 
conquered them, and cut off the head of 
Medusa, which was placed on the shield of 
Minerva, and all who fixed their eyes thereon 
were turned into stone. 

Graces, The, were the attendants of Venus. 
Their names were, Aglaia, so called from her 
beauty and goodness ; Thalia, from her per- 
petual freshness ; and Euphrosyne, from her 
cheerfulness. They are generally depicted 
as three cheerful maidens with hands joined, 
and either nude or only wearing transparent 
robes—the idea being that kindnesses, as per- 
sonified by the Graces, should be done with 
sincerity and candor, and without disguise. 
They were supposed to teach the duties of 
gratitude and friendship, and they promoted 
love and harmony among mankind. 



6o THE youth's 

Graces (fourth) , see Pasithea. 

Grad'ivus. A name given to Mars by the Ro- 
mans. It meant the warrior who defended 
the city against all external enemies. ^ 

Gra'gus. The name by which Jupiter was wor- 
shiped in Lycia. 

Granaries, see Tutelina. 

Grap'sios. A Lycian name of Jupiter. 

Grasshopper, see Tithonus. 

Grief, see Niobe. 

Ha' da. The Babylonian Juno. 

Ha'des. The Greek name of Pluto, the god of 
hell, the word signifying hidden, dark, and 
gloomy ; the underworld, or infernal regions ; 
sometimes written Ades, 

Hailstorms, see Nuriel. 

Halcy'one (or Alcyone) . one of the Pleiades, was 
a daughter of ^olus. 

Halcy'ons were sea-birds, supposed to be the 
Greek kingfishers. They made their nests 
on the waves, and during the period of incu- 
bation the sea was always calm. Hence the 
modern term Halcyon Days. 

Hamadry'ades were wood-nymphs, who presided 
over trees. 



Happiness, see Genii. 

Haroe'ris. The Egyptian god, whose eyes 
the sun and moon. 



the sun and moon 



are 



DICTIONARY OF MYTHOLOGY. 6 1 

Har'pies, The (literally, snatchers, demons of de- 
struction, or, in the modern sense, extortion- 
ers) . They were monsters, half-birds, half- 
maidens, having the heads and breasts of 
women, the bodies of birds, and the claws 
of lions. Their names were Aello, Ocypete, 
and Celeno. They were loathsome creatures, 
living in filth, and poisoning everything they 
came in contact with. 

** Such fiends to scourg^e mankind, so fierce, so fell, 
Heaven never summoned from the depth of hell. 
A virgin face, with wings and hookM claws. 
Death in their eyes, and famine in their jaws. 
While proof to steel their hides and plumes remain 
We strike the impenetrable fiends in vain.*^ 

Harpi'kniti. The Egyptian name of the god 
Harpocrates. 

Harpoc'rates, or Horus, an Egyptian god, son 
of Osiris and Isis. He was the god of silence 
and secrecy. He is usually represented as a 
young man, holding a finger of one hand to 
his lips (expressive of a command to preserve 
silence), while in the other hand he holds a 
cornucopia, signifying early vegetation. 

Harvest, see Segestia. A Roman divinity, invoked 
by the husbandman that the harvest might be 
plentiful. 

Hawk, see Nysus. 

Ha'zis. The Syrian war-god. 

Health, see Hygeia and Salus. , 

HeaVen, Queen of, see Belisama. God of, see 



62 THE youth's 

He'be, daughter of Zeus (Jupiter) and Hera 
(Juno) . was the goddess of youth. She was 
cupbearer to Jupiter and the gods, until she 
had an awkward fall at a festival, causing her 
to alight in an indecent posture, which so dis- 
pleased Jupiter that she was deprived of her 
office, and Ganymede was appointed in her 

stead. 

" Wreathed smiles. 
Such as hung on Hebe*s cheek. 
And love to live in dimples sleek." 

Milton. 

** Bright Hebe waits; by Hebe ever young 
The whirling wheels are to the chariot hung." 

Pope. 

Hec'ate. There were two goddesses known by 
this name, but the one generally referred to in 
modern literature is Hecate, or Proserpine, 
the name by which Diana was known in the 
infernal regions. In heaven her name was 
Luna, and her terrestrial name was Diana. 
She was a moon -goddess, and is generally 
represented in art with three bodies, standing 
back to back, a torch, a sword, and a lance 
in each right hand. 

Hecuba. The wife of Priam, king of Troy, and 
mother of Paris. Taken captive in the Trojan 
war, she fell to the lot of Ulysses after the 
destruction of Troy, and was afterwards 
changed into a hound. 

" What's Hecuba to him, or he to Hecuba? " 

SHAKESPEARE. 

Heifer, see Ino. 



DICTIONARY OF MYTHOLOGY. 63 

Hel'ena when a child was so beautiful that The- 
seus and Perithous stole her, but she was 
restored by Castor and Pollux. She became 
the wife of Menelaus, king of Sparta, but 
eloped with Paris, and thus caused the Tro- 
jan War. After the death of Paris she mar- 
ried Deiphobus, his brother, and then be- 
trayed him to Menelaus. She was afterward 
tied to a tree and strangled by order of 
Polyxo, king of Rhodes. 

He'liades, The, were the daughters of Sol ,^ and the 
sisters of Phaeton, at whose death they were so 
sad that they stood mourning till they became 
metamorphosed into poplar trees, and their 
tears were turned into amb^r. 

Hericon. A mountain in Boeotia sacred to the 
Muses, from which place the fountain Hippo- 
crene flowed. 

" Yet stilt the dotinjr rhymer dreams, 
And sings of Helicon's bright streams; 
But Helicon for all his clatter 
Yields only uninspiring water." 

Broom, 1720. 

Helico'niades. A name given to the Muses, from 

Mount Helicon. 
Heliop'olis, in Egypt, was the city of the sun. 
Helios. The Grecian sun-god, or charioteer of 

the sun, who went home every evening in a 

golden boat which had wings. 
Heriotrope. Clytie was turned into this flower by 

Apollo. See Clytie, 



64 THE youth's 

I 

Helle was drowned in the sea. into which she feu 
from off the back of the golden ram, on which 
she and Phryxus were escaping from the op- 
pression of their stepmother Ino. The epi- 
sode gave the name of the Hellespont to the 
part of the sea where Helle was drowned, and 
it is now called the Dardanelles. She was the 
daughter of Atharaas and Nephele. 

Hellespontia'cus. A title of Priapus. 

Hemph'ta. The Egyptian god Jupiter. 

Hephaestus. The Greek Vulcan, the smith of the 
gods. 

He'ra. The Greek name of Juno. 

Heracles is the same as Hercules. 

Hercules was the son of Jupiter and Alcmena. 
The goddess Juno hate J him from his birth, 
and sent two serpents to kill him, but though 
only eight months old he strangled them. 
As he got older he was set by his master 
Eurystheus what were thought to be twelve 
impossible tasks which have long been known 
as the "Twelve Labors of Hercules." They 
were : 

Firsts To slay the Nemean Lion. 
Second, To destroy the Hydra which infested 

the marshes of Lerna. 
Third, To bring to Eurystheus the Arcadian 
Stag with the golden horns and brazen 
hoofs. 
Fourth, To bring to his master the Boar of 
Erymanthug. 



DICTIONARY OF MYTHOLOGY. 65 

Fifths To cleanse the stable of King Augeas. 
in which 3,000 oxen had been kept for thirty 
years, but had never been cleaned out. 
Sixth, To destroy the Stymphalides, terrible 

carnivorous birds. 
Seventh, To capture the Bull which was deso- 
lating Crete. 
Eighth, To capture the mares of Diomedes, 
which breathed fire from their nostrils, and 
ate human flesh. 
Ninth, To procure the girdle of Hippolyte, 

queen of the Amazons. 
Tenth, To bring to Eurystheus the flesh-eating 
oxen of Geryon. the monster king of Gades. 
Eleventh, To bring away some of the golden 

apples from the garden of the Hesperides. 
Tweljth, To bring up from Hades the three- 
headed dog, Cerberus. 
All these tasks he successfully accomplished, 
and, besides, he assisted the gods in their 
wars with the giants. Several other wonder- 
ful feats are mentioned under other headings, 
as Antaeus, Cacus, etc. His death was 
brought about through his endeavors to pre- 
serve Deianira from the attacks of Nessus, 
the centaur, whom he killed. The centaur, 
before he expired, gave his mystic tunic to 
Deianira, who in turn gave it to Hercules, and 
he put it on, but his doing so brought on an 
illness of which he could not be cured. In a 
fit of desperation he cast himself into a funeral 
pile on Mount CEta; but Jupiter had him 
5 



66 rnt. YouTH*s 

taken to heaven in a four-horse chariot, and 
only the mortal part of Hercules was con- 
sumed. 

** Let Hercules himself do what he may. 
The cat will mew, and dog will have his day.** 

Shakespeare. 
Herdsmen, see Bubona. 

Her'nue were statues of Hermes (Mercury), which 
were set up in Athens for boundaries, and as 
direction marks for travelers. 

Her'manu'bis, see Anubis. 

Hermathe'nae were statues of Mercury and Mi- 
nerva placed together. 

Her'mes. A Greek name of the god Mercury. 

** Hermes obeys. With golden pinions binds 
His flying feet and mounts the western winds.** 

Virgil. 

Hermi'one, daughter of Mars and Venus, who was 
turned into a serpent, and allowed to live in 
the Elysian Fields. There was another Her- 
mione, daughter of Menelaus and Helen ; she 
was betrothed to Orestes, but was carried 
away by Pyrrhus, the son of Achilles. 

He'ro. A priestess of Venus, with whom Lean- 
der was so enamored that he swam across the 
Hellespont every night to visit her, but at 
last was drowned ; when Hero saw the fate 
of her lover she threw herself into the sea and 
was also drowned. 

Heroes, see Valhalla. 

Hesper'ides. Three daughters of Hesperus, King 



DICTIONARY OF MYTHOLOGY. 67 

of Italy. They were appointed to guard the 
golden apples which Juno gave Jupiter on 
their wedding day. See Hercules. 

Hes'perus, brother of Atlas, was changed into 
the evening star. 

** To the ocean now I fly, 
And those happy climes that lie 
Where day never shuts his eye, 
Upon the broad fields of the sky ; 
There I suck the liquid air. 
All amidst the gardens fair 
Of Hesperus and his daughters three, 
That sing about the golden tree." 

Milton. 

Hes'tia. The Greek name of Vesta, the goddess 

of the hearth. 
Hieroglyphics, see Mercury. 
Highways, see Janus. 
Hil'dur. The Scandinavian Mars. 
Hip'pia. A surname of Minerva. 
Hip'pius. A surname of Neptune. 
Hippocampus. The name of Neptune's favorite 

horse, a fabulous marine animal, half horse 

and half fish. 
Hippocre'nides, a name of the Muses, from the 

fountain of Hippocrene (the horse fountain) , 

which was formed by a kick of the winged 

horse Pegasus. 
Hippor3rte, queen of the Amazons, daughter of 

Mars. Her father gave her a famous girdle, 

which Hercules was required to procure (see 



68 THE youth's 

Hercules) . She was conquered by Hercules, 
and given by him in marriage to Theseus. 

Hippor3rtus was the son of Theseus and Hippol- 
yte ; he was killed by a fall from a chariot, but 
was raised to life again by Diana, or. as some 
say, by ^Esculapius. 

Hippo'na was a rural divinity, the goddess of 
horses. 

History, see Clio and Saga. 

Honey, see Aristaeus and Dryads. 

Hope, see Pandora. 

Ho'rae were the daughters of Sol and Chronis, the 

goddesses of the seasons. 
Horse, see Cyllaros. 
Horse Races, see Neptune. 
Horses, see Hippona. 
Horten'sis, a name of Venus, because she looked 

after plants and flowers in gardens. 
Ho'rus. The name of two deities, one Sol, the 

Egyptian day god ; the other, the son of Osiris 

and Isis. See Harpocrates. 
Hostil'ina. A rural divinity ; goddess of growing 

corn. 
Hunger, see Erisichthon. 
Hunting, see Diana. 
Huntsmen, see Pan. 
Hyacin'thus was a boy greatly loved by Apollo ; 

but he was accidentally slain by him with a 




mi 



Hebe. 



DICTIONARY OF MYTHOLOGY. 69 

quoit. Apollo caused to spring from his 
blood the flower Hyacinth. 

Hy'ades were seven daughters of Atlas and 
^thra. and they formed a constellation which, 
when it rises with the sun, threatens rain. 

Hy'dra. A monster serpent, which had a hun- 
dred heads. It was slain by Hercules. See 
Hercules. 

Hyge'ia, the goddess of health, was a daughter of 
^sculapius and Epione. She was repre- 
sented as a 3'oung woman giving a serpent 
drink out of a saucer, the serpent being 
twined round her arm. 

Hylas. A beautiful boy beloved by Hercules. 
The nymphs were jealous of him, and spirited 
him away while he was drawing water for 
Hercules. See Wm. Morris's tragedy, ** The 
Life and Death of Jason." • 

Hy'men, the Grecian god of marriage, was either 
the son of Bacchus and Venus, or. as some 
say, of Apollo and one of the Muses. He was 
represented as a handsome youth, holding in 
his hand a burning torch. 

" Some few there are of sordid mould 
Who barter youth and bloom for gold: 
But Hymen, genVous, just, and kind, 
Abhors the mercenary mind; 
Such rebels groan beneath his rod, 
For Hymen^s a vindictive god." 

Dr. Cotton, 1736b * 

Hymn, see Paean. 



70 THE YOUTH S 

Hype'rion. Son of Coelus and Terra. The model 
of manly beauty, synonymous with Apollo. 
The personification of the sun. 

** So excellent a king ; that was to this 
Hyperion to a satjT." 

Shakespeare. 

Hypermnes'tra. One of the fifty daughters of 
Danaus, who were collectively called the 
Danaides. She was the one who refused to 
kill her husband on the wedding night. See 
Danaus. 



lac'chus. Another name for Bacchus. 

lap'etos. The father of Atlas. See Japetus. 

Ib'lees. The Arabian Satan. 

Icarus, son of Daedalus, who with his feather 
made themselves wings with which to fly from 
Crete to escape the resentment of Minos. 
The wings were fixed to the shoulders by 
wax. Icarus flew too near the sun, and the 
heat melting the wax, caused the wings to 
drop off, and he fell into the -<Egean or Icarian 
sea and was drowned. 

Ichnoba'te. One of Actaeon's hounds; the word 
means tracker. 

Idae'a. A name of Cybele, from Mount Ida, where 
she was worshiped. 

Idae'an Mother. Cybele was sometimes so called, 
in Cyprus, in which there is a grove sacred to 
Venns. 



DICTIONARY OF MYTHOLOGY. 7 1 

Ida'lia. A name of Venus, from Mount Idalus. 
in Cyprus, in which there is a grove sacred to 
Venus. 

Impera'tor was a name of Jupiter, given to him at 
Praeneste. 

a- • 

I'nachus was one of the earliest of the demigods 
or heroes, King of Argos. 

Incendiary, see Erostratus. 

Incense, see Venus. 

In'cubus. A Roman name of Pan, meaning The 
Nightmare. See Innus. 

Indig'etes were deified mortals, gods of the fourth 
order. They were peculiar to some district. 

In'dra. The Hindoo Jupiter; his wife was In- 
drant, who presides over the winds and thun- 
der. 

Infants, see Natio. " 

In'nus. A name of Pan, the same as Incubus. 

In'o, second wife of Athamas, King of Thebes, 
father of Phryxus and Helle. Ino had two 
childten, who could not ascend the throne 
while Phryxus and Helle were alive. Ino 
therefore persecuted them to such a degree 
that they determined to escape. They did so 
on a ram, whose hide became the Golden 
Fleece (see Phryxus and Helle). Ino de- 
stroyed herself, and was changed by Neptune 
into a sea-goddess. 

Ino'a were festivals in memory of Ino. 



72 THE YOUTH S 

Instrumental Music, see Euterpe. 

To was a daughter of Inachus, and a priestess of 
Juno at Argus. Jupiter courted her, and was 
detected by Juno, when the god turned lo 

• into a beautiful heifer. Juno demanded the 
beast of Jupiter, and set the hundred- eyed 
Argus to watch her. Jupiter persuaded Mer- 
cury to destroy Argus, and lo was set at lib- 
erty, and restored to human shape. Juno 
continued her persecutions, and lo had to 
wander from place to place till she came to 
Egypt, where she became wife of King Osiris, 
and won such good opinions from the Egyp- 
tians that after her death she was worshiped 
as the goddess Isis. 

lola'us, son of Iphicles, assisted Hercules in con- 
quering the Hydra, by burning with hot irons 
the place where the heads were cut oflP ; and 
for his assistance he was restored to youth by 
Hebe. Lovers used to go to his monument 
at ^hocis and ratify their vows of fidelity. 

lo'thun. Celtic mythological monsters, or giants. 

Iph'icles was twin brother of Hercules, and 
father of lolaus. 

Iphigeni'a was a daughter of Agamemnon and 
Clytemnestra. Agamemnon made a vow to 
Diana, which involved the sacrifice of Iphi- 
genia, but just at the critical moment she 
was carried to heaven, and a beautiful goat 
was found on the altar in her place. 



biCTIONARY OF MYTHOLOOY. 73 

Tris, daughter of Thaumas and Electra, was the 
attendant of Juno, and one of the messengers 
of the gods. Her duty was to cut the thread 
which detained expiring souls. She is the 
personification of the rainbow. 

Iron, see Vulcan. 

Tsis, wife of Osiris, and a much worshiped 
divinity of the Egyptians. See lo. 

rtys was killed by his mother Procne when six 
years old, and given to his father Tereus, 
a Thracian of Daulis, as food. The gods 
were so enraged at this that they turned Itys 
into a pheasant, Procne into a swallow, and 
Tereus into a hawk. 

Ixi'on. the son of Phlegyas, King of the Lapithae. 
For attempting to produce thunder, Jupiter 
cast him into hell, and had him bound to a 
wneel, surrounded with serpents, which is for- 
ever turning over a river of fire. 

" The powers of vengeance, while they hear, 
Touched with compassion, drop a tear ; 
Ixion's rapid wheel is bound, 
Fixed in attention to the sound. ^* 

P. Lewis. 

" Or, as Ixion fixM, the wretch shall feel 
The giddy motion of the whirling wheel." 

Pope. 

Ja'ni was a place in Rome where there were three 
statues of Janus, and it was a meeting-place 
for usurers and creditors. 

Ja'nitor. A title of Janus, from the gates before 



74 THE YOUTH S 

the doors of private houses being called 
Januae. 
Ja'nus. A king of Italy, said to have been the 
son of Ccelus, others say of Apollo ; he shel- 
tered Saturn when he was driven from heaven 
by Jupiter. Janus presided over highways, 
gates, and locks, and is usually represented 
with two faces, because he was acquainted 
with the past and the future ; or. according to 
others, because he was taken for the sun, who 
opens the day at his rising, and shuts it at his 
setting. A brazen temple was erected to him 
in Rome, which was always open in time of 
war, and closed during peace. 

" Old Janus, if you please, 
Grave two-faced father." 

" In two-faced Janus we this moral find, — 
While we look forward, we should glance behind/* 

COLMAN. 

Jap'etus, son of Coelus and Terra, husband of 
Clymene. He was looked upon by the Greeks 
as the father of all mankind. See lapetos. 

Jason, the son of ^son, king of lolcos ; he was 
brought up by the centaur Chiron. His uncle 
-<Eeta sent him to fetch the Golden Fleece from 
Colchis (see Argonauts). He went in the 
ship Argo with forty-nine companions, the 
flower of Greek youth. With the help of 
Juno they got safe to Colchis, but the King 
-^etes promised to restore the Golden Fleece 
only on condition that the Argonauts per- 



DICTIONARY OF MYTHOLOGY. 75 

formed certain services. Jason was to tame 
the wild fiery bulls, and to make them plow 
the field of Mars ; to sow in the ground the 
teeth of a serpent, from which would spring 
armed men who would fight against him who 
plowed the field of Mars; to kill the fiery 
dragon which guarded the tree on which the 
Golden Fleece was hung. The fate of Jason 
and the rest of the Argonauts seemed certain : 
but Medea, the king's daughter, fell in love 
with Jason, and with the help of charms 
which she gave him he overcame all the diffi- 
culties which the king had put in his way. 
He took away the Golden Fleece and Medea 
also. The kicg sent his son Absyrtus to over- 
take the.fugitives. but Medea killed him, and 
strewed his limbs in his father's path, so that 
he might be delayed in collecting them, and 
this enabled Jason and Medea to escape. 
After a time Jason got tired of Medea, and 
married Glauce, which cruelty Medea re- 
venged by killing her children before their 
father's eyes. Jason was accidentally killed 
by a beam of the ship Argo falling on him. 

Jocas'ta (otherwise Epicasta), wife of Laius, 
King of Thebes, who in after-life married her 
own son, CEdipus, not knowing who he was, 
and, on discovering the fatal mistake, hanged 
herself. 

Jove. A very general name of Jupiter. 

" From the great father of the gods above 
Wy muse begins, for all is full of Jove." 

Virgil. 



76 THE youth's 

Judg^es in Hell, The, wei^ Rhadamanthus for 
Asiatics; ^acus for Europeans; Minos was 
the presiding judge in the infernal regions. 
See Triptolemus. 

Jugatin'us was one of the nuptial deities. 

Ju'no was the daughter of Saturn and Ops, alias 
Cybeld. She was married to Jupiter, and 
became queen of all the gods and goddesses, 
and mistress of heaven and earth. Juno was 
the mother of Mars, Vulcan, Hebe, and Lu- 
cina. She prompted the gods to conspire 
against Jupiter, but the attempt was frus- 
trated, and Apollo and Neptune were ban- 
ished from heaven by Jupiter. Juno is the 
goddess of marriage, and the protectress of 
married women ; and she had special regard 
for virtuous women. In the competition for 
the celebrated Golden Apple, which Juno, 
Venus, and Minerva each claimed as the fair- 
est among the goddesses, Juno was much dis- 
pleased when Paris gave the apple to Venus. 
The goddess is generally represented riding 
in a chariot drawn by peacocks, with a dia- 
dem on her head, and a scepter in her hand. 

Ju'piter, son of Saturn and Cybele (or Ops) , was 
born on Mount Ida. in Crete, and nourished 
by the goat Amalthaea. When quite young 
Jupiter rescued his father from the Titans; 
and afterward, with the help of Hercules, 
defeated the giants, the sons of earth, when 
they made war against heaven. Jupiter was. 



DICTIONARY OF MYTHOLOGY. 77 

worshiped with greaX solemnity under vari* 
ous names by most of the heathen nations. 
The Africans called him Ammon ; the Baby- 
lonians, Belus; and the Egyptians, Osiris 
(see Jove). He is represented as a majes- 
tic personage seated on a throne, holding in 
his hands a scepter and a thunderbolt ; at his 
feet stood a spread eagle. 

Justice, see Astrea, Nemesis. 



Kali. A Hindoo goddess, after whom Calicut 
is named. 

Ka'loc. One of the chief of the Mexican gods. 

Kam'a. The Hindoo god of love. 

Keb'la. The point of the compass which wor- 
shipers look to during their invocations. 
Thus the Sol or Sun worshipers turn to the 
east, where the sun rises, and the Mohamme- 
dans turn toward Mecca. 

Ke'derli, in Mohammedan mythology, is a god 
corresponding to the English St. George, and 
is still invoked by the Turks when they go to 
war. 

Ki'un. The Egyptian Venus. 

Kneph. An Egyptian god, having a ram's head 
and a man's body. 

Krish'na. ' An Indian god. the revenger of 
wrongs ; also called the Indian Apollo. 

Kro'do. The Saxon Saturn. 



78 THE youth's 

Ku'ma'ra. The war-god of the Hindoos. 
KuVera. The Hindoo god of riches. 

La'be. The Arabian Circe, who had unlimited 
power of metamorphosis. 

Lab' or, see Atlas, Hercules. 

Labyrinth, see Theseus. 

Lach'esis. One of the three goddesses of Fate, 
the Parcae. She spun the thread of life. 

Lacin'ia. A name of Juno. 

Lactura. One of the goddesses of growing com. 

La'don. The dragon which guarded the apples 
in the garden of the Hesperides. Also the 
name of one of Actaeon's hounds. Also the 
river in Arcadia to which Syrinx fled when 
pursued by Pan, where she was changed into 
a reed, and where Pan made his first pipe. 

Lae'laps. One of Diana's hunting-dogs, which, 
while pursuing a wild boar, was petrified. 
Also the name of one of Actaeon's hounds. 

Laks'mi. Hindoo goddess of wealth and pleas- 
ure. One of the husbands of Vishnu. 

Lamentation, see Cocytus. 

Lam'ia. An evil deity among the Greeks and 
Romans, and the great dread of their children, 
whom she had the credit of constantly entic- 
ing away and destroying. 

Lamp, see Lares and Penates. 



DICTIONARY OF MYTHOLOGY. 79 

Lam'pos. One of Aurora's chariot horses, the 
other being Phaeton. 

Laoc'oon. One of the priests of Apollo, who 
was, with his two sons, strangled to death by 
serpents, because he opposed the admission 
of the fatal wooden horse to Troy. 

Laom'edon, son of Ilus, a Trojan king. He was 
famous for having, with the assistance of 
Apollo and Neptune, built the walls of Troy. 

Lap'is. The oath stone. The Romas used to 
swear by Jupiter Lapis. 

Lap'ithus, son of Apollo. His numerous children 
were called Lapithae, and they are notorious 
for their fight with the centaurs at the nuptial 
feast of Perithous and Hippodamia. 

La'res and Pena'tes were sons of Mercury and 
Lara, or, as other mythologists say, of Jupiter 
and Lamida. They belonged to the lower 
order of Roman gods, and presided over 
homes and families. Their statues were gen- 
erally fixed within the doors of houses, or near 
the hearths. Lamps were sacred to them, as 
symbols of vigilance, and the dog was their 
sacrifice. 

Lark, see Scylla and Nysus. 

Lato'na, daughter of Coelus and Phoebe, mother 
of Apollo and Diana. Being admired so 
much by Jupiter, Juno was jealous, and 
Latona was the object of the goddess* con- 
stant persecution. 

Laughter, see Momus and Venus. 



8o THE youth's 

Latt'rel, see Daphne. 

Laver'na. The Roman patroness of thieves. 

Law, see Menu. 

Lawgiver, see Nomius. 

Laws, see Themis. 

Lean'der, see Hero. 

Leather Bottle, see Ascolia. 

Le'da was the mother of Castor and Pollux, theii 
father being Jupiter, in the shape of a swan. 
After her death she received the name of 
Nemesis. 

Lem'nius. One of the names of Vulcan. 

Lem'ures. The ghosts of departed souls. Mil- 
ton, in his "Ode to the Nativity," says— 

"Lemures moan with midnight plaint." 
They are sometimes referred to as the Manes 
of the dead. 

Lenae'us. One of the names of Bacchus. 

Ler'na. The lake or swamp near Argos where 
Hercules conquered the Lernaean Hydra. 

Le'the. One of the rivers of the infernal regions, 
of which the souls of the departed are obliged 
to drink to produce oblivion or forgetfulness 
of everything they did or knew while alive 
on the earth. 

" A slow and silent stream, 
Lethe, the river of oblivion, rolls 
Her watery labyrinth, whereof who drinks 
Forthwith his former state and being forgets, 
Forgets both joy and grief, pleasure and pain." 

Milton 




Hera. 



See p<igeQi. 



DICTIONARY OF MYTHOLOGY. 8l 

Leucoth'ea. The name of Ino after she was 
transformed into ~ sea-nymph. 

Leva'na. The deity who presided over new- 
bom infants. 

Level, The, see Daedalus. 

Liak'ura. Mount Parnassus. 

Liberal Arts, see Minerva. 

Li'ber Pa'ter. A name of Bacchus. 

Liberty, see Bacchus. 

Lib'issa. Queen of fays and fairies. 

Libiti'na. A Roman goddess, the chief of the 
funeral deities. 

Licentiousness, see Belphegor. 

Lige'a. A Greek syren or sea-nymph, one of the 
Nereides. 

Lightning, see Agni. 

Li'lith. A- Jewish myth representing a finely 
dressed woman who is a great enemy to new- 
born children. She was said to have been 
Adam's first wife, but, refusing to submit to 
him, was turned from Paradise and made a 
specter. 

Li'na. The goddess of the art of weaving. 

Lin'dor. A lover in the shape of a shepherd, like 
Cory don ; a love -sick swain. 

Lion, see Atalanta, Chimsera. 

Liver, see Tityus and Prometheus. 

Locks, see Janua. 



62 THE youth's 

Lo'fen. The Scandinavian god who guards 
friendship. 

Lof ua. The Scandinavian goddess who recon- 
ciles lovers. 

Loke. The Scandinavian Satan, the god of 
strife, the spirit of evil. Written also Lok. 
and Loki. 

Lo'tis. A daughter of Neptune, who fled from 
Priapus, and only escaped from him by being 
transformed into a lotus-plant. 

Lo'tus-Plant, see Lotis. 

Love, see Cupid, Eros. Venus. 

Lu'cian. The impersonation of folly, changed 
into an ass. 

Lu'cifer. The morning star. 

Luci'na. The goddess who presides at the birth 
of children. She was a daughter of Jupiter 
and Juno, or, according to others, of Latona. 

** Lucina, hail ! So named from thine own grove, 
Or from the light thou giv'st us from above." 

OVID. 

Lud. In ancient British mythology the king of 

the Britons. He is said to have given his 

name to London. 
Lu'na. The name of Diana as a celestial divinity. 

See Diana and Hecate. Also,--the Italian 

goddess of the moon. 
Ltt'percus, or Pan. The Roman god of fertility; 

his festival day was 15th February, and the 

festivals were called Lupercalia. 



DICTIONARY OF MYTHOLOGY. 83 

Lycaon'ian Food. Execrable viands, such as 
were supplied to Jupiter by Lycaon. To test 
the divine knowledge of the god he served up 
human flesh, which Jove discovered, and pun- 
ished Lj^caon by turning him into a wolf. 

Lycian Clowns were turned into frogs by Latona 
or Ceres. 

Lymni'ades. Nymphs who resided in marshes. 

Lyn'ceus. One of the Argonauts. The personi- 
fication of sharpsightedness. 

Lyre. This musical instrument is constantly as- 
sociated with the doings of the ancient deities. 
Amphion built the walls of Thebes by the 
music of his lyre. Arion charmed the dol- 
phins in a similar way. Hercules broke the 
head of Linus, his music-master, with the 
lyre he was learning to use; and Orpheus 
charmed the most savage beasts, and even 
the Harpies and gods of the infernal regions, 
with the enchanting music of the stringed 
lyre. See Mercury. 



Maen'ades. Priestesses of Bacchus. 

Magicians, see Telchines. 

Mag'na De'a, a name of Ceres. 

Maggies, see Pierides. 

Ma'ha'soor. The Hindoo god of eviL 

Mala. The mother of the Grecian Mercury. 

Mam'mon. The money god. 



84 THE youth's 

Ma'nes. The souls of the departed. The Roman 
god of funerals and tcmhs. 

*' All have their Manes, and their Manes bear. 
The few who're cleansed to those abodes repair, 
And breathe in ample fields the soft Blysian air.*' 

Manuring^ Land, see Picumnus 

March 24, Bellona's Day. See Bellona. 

Mari'na. A name of Venus, meaning sea-foam, 
from her having been formed from the froth 
of the sea. See Aphrodite. 

Marriage, see Cama, Hymen, Juno, Jugatinus. 

Mars, the god of war, was the son of Jupiter and 
Juno. Venus was his favorite goddess, and 
among their children were Cupid, Anteros, 
and Harmonia. In the Trojan War Mars took 
the part of the Trojans, but was defeated by 
Diomede. The first month of the old Roman 
year (our March) was sacred to Mars. 

Marshes, see Lymniades. 

Mar'syas. The name of the piper who challenged • 
Apollo to a musical contest, and, being de- 
feated, was flayed to death by the god. He 
was the supposed inventor of the flute. 

Ma'rut. The Hindoo god of tempestuous winds. 

Matu'ra. One of the rural deities who protected 
the 'growing corn at time of ripening. 

Max'imus. One of the appellations of Jupiter, 
being the greatest of the gods. 

Measures and Weights, see Mercury. 



DICTIONARY OP MYTHOLOGY. 85 

Mede'a. Wife of Jason, chief of the Argonauts. 
To punish her husband for infidelity, Medea 
killed two of her children in their father's 
presence. She was a great sorceress. See 
Jason. 

*' Now to Medaea^s dragons fix my reins.** 

F. Lewis. 

** Let not Medea draw her murdering knife, 
And spill her children's blood upon the stage.** 

Lord Roscommon. 

Medicine, see Apollo. 

Meditation, see Harpocrates. 

Medu'sa. One of the Gorgons. Minerva changed 
her beautiful hair into serpents. She was 
conquered by Perseus, who cut off her head, 
and placed it on Minerva's shield. Every 
one who looked at the head was turned into 
stone. 

Ulysses, in the Odyssey, relates that he 
wished to see more of the inhabitants of 
Hades, but was afraid, as he says — 

** Lest Gorgon, rising from the infernal lakes, 
With horrors armed, and curls of hissing snakes, 
Should fix me, stiffened at the monstrous sight, 
A stony image in eternal night." 

Pope. 

** Medusa with Gorgonian terror guards 
The ford." 

Milton. 

* Remove that horrid monster, and take hence 
Medusa's petrifying countenance." 

Addison. 



86 THE youth's 

Meg'sra. One of the three Furies— Greek god- 
desses of vengeance. 

Meg'ale. A Greek name of Juno, meaning great. 

Melicer'ta, see Palsemon. 

Mello'na. One of the rural divinities, the god- 
dess of bees. 

Melpom'ene. One of the nine Muses, the goddess 
of tragedy. 

Mem'non, son of Tithonus and of Eos, who after 
the death of Hector brought the -^Ethiopians 
to the assistance of Priam in the war against 
Troy. 

Memory, see Mnemosyne. 

Men'des. An Egyptian god like Pan. He was 
worshiped in the form of a goat. 

Menela'us. A Spartan king, brother of Aga- 
memnon. The elopement of his wife Helen 
with Paris was the cause of the siege of Troy. 
See Helena. 

Me'nu, or Ma'nu. The Hindoo law-giver. See 
Satyavrata. 

Merchants, see Mercury. 

Mer'cury, the son of Jupiter and Maia, was the 
messenger of the gods, and the conductor of 
the souls of the dead to Hades. He was the 
supposed inventor of weights and measures, 
and presided over orators and merchants. 
Mercury was accounted a most cunning thief, 
for he stole the bow and quiver of Apollo, the 



DICTIONARY OF MYTHOLOGY. 87 

girdle of Venus, the trident of Neptune, the 
tools of Vulcan, and the sword of Mars, and 
he was therefore called the god of thieves. 
He is the supposed inventor of the lyre, which 
he exchanged with Apollo for the Caduceus. 
There was also an Egyptian Mercury under 
the name of Thot, or Thaut, who is credited 
with having taught the Egyptians geometry 
and hieroglyphics. Hermes is the Greek 
name of Mercury. In art he is usually repre- 
sented as having on a winged cap, and with 
wings on his heels. 

•* And there, without the power to fly, 
Stands fix'd a tip-toe Mercury." 

Lloyd, i7sa 

" Then fiery expedition be my wing, 
Jove's Mercury, and herald for a king." 

'• Be Mercury, set feathers to thy heels 
And fly, like thought, fronf them to me again.'* 

Shakespeare. 

Me'ni. The abode of the Hindoo god Vishnu. 
It is at the top of a mountain 8,000 leagues 
high. The Olympus of the East Indians. 

Mi'das. A king of Phrygia, who begged of Bac- 
chus the special gi# that everything that he 
touched might be turned into gold. The re- 
quest was granted, and as soon as he touched 
his food it also was turned to gold, and for 
fear of being starved he was compelled to 
ask the god to withdraw the power he had 
bestowed upon him. He was told to bathe in 
the river Pactolus. He did so, and the sands 



88 THE youth's 

which he stood on were golden forever after. 
It was this same king who, being appointed to 
be judge in a musical contest between Apollo 
and Pan, gave the satyr the palm ; whereupon 
Apollo, to show his contempt, bestowed on him 
a pair of asses' ears. This gave rise to the 
term " Midas-ear^d" as a synonym for ill- 
judged, or indiscriminate. 

" He dug: a hole, and in it whispering said. 
What monstrous ears sprout from King Midas* head.'* 

Ovid. 

Mi'lo, a celebrated Croton athlete, who is said to 
have felled an ox with his fist, and to have 
eaten the beast in one day. His statue is 
often seen with one hand in the rift of a tree 
trunk, out of which he is vainly trying to 
withdraw it. The fable is, that when he got 
to be an old man Ue attempted to split an oak 
tree, but having lost his youthful vigor, the 
tree closed on his hand and he was held a 
prisoner till the wolves came and devoured 
him. 

Mimallo'nes. The "wild women" who accom- 
panied Bacchus, so called because they mim- 
icked his actions, putting horns on their heads 
when they took part in his orgies. 

Mi'mir. In Scandinavian mythology the god of 
wisdom. 

Mind, see Erinnys. 

Minerva, the goddess of wisdom, war, and the 
liberal arts, is said to have sprung from the 



DICTIONARY OF MYTHOLOGY. 89 

head of Jupiter fully armed for battle. She 
was a great benefactress of mankind, and 
patroness of the fine arts. She was the tu- 
telar deity of the city of Athens. She is also 
known by the names of Pallas, Parthenos, 
Tritonia, and Glaucopis. She was very gen- 
erally worshiped by the ancients, and her 
temple at Athens, the Parthenon, still re- 
mains. She is represented in statues and 
pictures as wearing a golden helmet encircled 
with an olive branch, and a breastplate. In 
her right hand she carries a lance, and by her 
side is the famous aegis or shield, covered 
with the skin of Amalthaea, the goat which 
nourished Jupiter; and for the boss of the 
shield is the head of Medusa. An owl, the 
emblem of meditation, is on the left; and a 
cock, the emblem of courage, on the right. 
The Elgin Marbles in the British Museum, 
London, were brought from the Parthenon, 
her temple at Athens. 

Minos. The supreme of the three judges of* 
hell, before whom the spirits of the departed 
appeared and heard their doom. 

Min'otaur. The monster, half man, half bull, 
which Theseus slew. 

Mirth, see Momus. 

Misery, see Genii. 

Mith'ras. A Persian divinity, the ruler of the 
tjniver^e, corresponding with the Roman Sol. 



9C THE YOUTH S 

Mnemos'yne. Mother of the Muses and goddess 
of memory. Jupiter courted the goddess in 
the gnise of a shepherd. 

Moak'itMit. The recording angel of the Moham- 
medans. 

Moloch. A god of the Phoenicians to whom hu- 
man victims, principally children, were sacri- 
ficed. Moloch is figurative of the influence 
which impels us to sacrifice that which we 
ought to cherish most dearly. 

*' First Moloch, horrid kinsr, besmeared with>lood 
Of haman sacrifice, and parents* tears. 
Though for the noise of drums and timbrels lottd. 
Their children's cries unheard, that poured through fire 
To this grim idoL*' 

Milton. 

Mo'mns. The god of mockery and blame. The 
god who blamed Jove for not having made a 
window in man 's breast, so that his thoughts 
could be seen. His bitter jests occasioned 
his being driven from heaven in disgrace. 
He is represented as holding an image of 
Folly in one hand, and raising a mask from 
his face with the other. He is also described 
as the god of mirth or laughter. 

Mone'ta. A name given to Juno by those writers 
who considered her the goddess of money. 

Money, see Moneta. 

Money-God, see Mammon. 

Moon. The moon was, by the ancients, called 
Hecate before and after setting; Astarte 



DICTIONARY OF MYTHOLOGY. 9 1 

when in crescent form ; Diana when in full. 
See Luna. 

*' Soon as the evening shades prevail 
The moon takes up her wondrous tale, 
And nightly to the list'ning earth 
Repeats the story of her birth." ADDIS9N. 

Mor'pheus. The Greek god of sleep and dreams, 
the son and minister of Somnus. 

** Morpheus, the humble god that dwells 
In cottages and smoky cells; 
Hates gilded roofs and beds of down, 
And though he fears no prince's frown. 
Flies from the circle of a crown." 

Sir John Denman. 

Mors. Death, a daughter of Nox (Night). 

Mountain, see Atlas, Nymph. 

Mul'ciber. A name of Vulcan, sometimes spelled 
Mulcifer, the smelter of metals. See Vulcan. 

Mun'in. The Scandinavian god of memory, rep- 
• resented by the raven that was perched on , 
Odin's shoulder. 

Musca'rius. A name given to Jupiter because he 
kept off the flies from the sacrifices. 

Mu'ses, The, were nine daughters of Jupiter and 
Mnemosyne. They presided over the arts 
and sciences, music and poetry. Their 
names were. Calliope, Clio, Erato, Thalia, 
Melpomene, Terpsichore, Euterpe, Polyhym- 
nia, and Urania. They principally resided 
in Mount Parnassus, at Helicon. 

•* Be thou the tenth Muse, ten times more in worth. 
Than those old nine which rhymers advocate." 

SHAKESF'EARE. 



93 THE youth's 

Music, see Apollo, Muses. 

My'thras. The Egyptian name of Apollo. 

Nai ads, The, were beautiful nymphs of human 
form who presided over springs, fountains, 
and wells. They resided in the meadows by 
the sides of rivers. Virgil mentions .^gle as 
being the fairest of the "Naiades. 

Nan'di. The Hindoo goddess of joy. 

Nar'ras. The name of the infernal regions amongst 
the Hindoos. 

Na'ra'yan. The mover of the waters. The Hin- 
doo god of tides. 

Narcis'sus, son of Cephisus and the Naiad Liriope, 
was a beautiful youth, who was so pleased 
with the reflection of himself which he saw 
in the placid water of a fountain that he 
could not help loving it, imagining that it 
must be some beautiful nymph. His fruitless 
endeavors to possess himself of the supposed 
nymph drove him to despair, and he killed 
himself. There sprang from his blood a 
flower, which was named after him, Narcis- 
sus. 

*' Narcissus so himself forsook, 
And died to kiss his shadow in the brook.^' 

" Hadst thou Narcissus in thy face, to me 
Thou wouldst appear most ugly.'* 

SHAKESPEARE. 

Nas'trond. The Scandinavian place of eternal 
punishment, corresponding with Hade§, 




See page li 



Hero and Leander. 



DICTIONARY OF MYTHOLOGY. 93 

Na'tio. A Roman goddess who took care of 
youDg infants. 

Nemae'an Lion, see Hercules. 

Nem'esis, the goddess of vengeance or justice, 
was one of the infernal deities. Her mother 
was Nox. She was supposed to be constantly 
traveling about the earth in search of wicked- 
ness, which she punished with the greatest 
severity. She is referred to by some writers 
under the nar:e of Adrasteia. The Romans 
always sacrificed to this goddess before they 
went to war, because they wished to signify 
that they never took up arms but in the cause 
of justice. 

** Forbear, said Nemesis, my loss to moan, 
The fainting, trembling hand was mine alone.'* 

Dr. J. Wharton. 

Nephalia. Grecian festivals in honor of Mne- 
mosyne, the mother of the Muses. 

Nep'tune, god of the sea, was a son of Saturn and 
Cybele, and brother to Jupiter and Pluto. 
He quarreled with Jupiter because he did 
not consider that the dominion of the sea was 
equal to Jupiter's empire of heaven and 
earth ; and he was banished from the celestial 
regions, after having conspired with Pluto to 
dethrone Jupiter. Neptune was married to 
Amphitrite, daughter of Oceanus and Tethys. 
by whom he had a son named Triton. He 
was also father of Polyphemus (one of the 
Cyclopes), Phoreus, and Proteus. Neptune 



94 THE youth's 

is represented as being seated in a shell char- 
iot, drawn by dolphins or sea-horses, and 
surrounded by Tritons and sea-nymphs. He 
holds in his hand a trident, with which he 
rules the waves. Though a marine deity, he 
was reputed to have presided over horse- 
training and horse-races; but he is princi- 
pally known as the god of the ocean ; and the 
two functions of the god are portrayed in the 
seahorses with which his chariot is drawn, 
the fore-half of the animal being a horse, and 
the hind-half a dolphin. Ships were also 
under his protection, and whenever he ap- 
peared on the ocean there was a dead calm. 

Nere'ides, The, were aquatic nymphs. They 
were daughters of Nereus and Doris, and were 
fifty in number. They are generally repre- 
sented as beautiful girls riding on dolphins, 
and carrying tridents in the right hand or 
garlands of flowers. 

Nere'us. A sea deity, husband of Doris. He 
had the gift of prophecy, and foretold fates ; 
but he had also the power of assuming vari- 
ous shapes, which enabled him to escape from 
the importunities of those who were anxious 
to consult him. 

Nes'sus. The name of the Centaur that was de- 
stroyed by Hercules for insulting his wife 
Deianira. Nessus's blood-smeared robe 
proved fatal to Hercules. 

Nestor. A grandson of Neptune, his father 



DICTIONARY OF MYTHOLOGY. 95 

being Neleus, and his mother Chloris. Ho- 
mer makes him one of the greatest of the 
Greek heroes. He was present at the famous 
battle between the Lapithse and the Centaurs, 
and took a leading part in the Trojan war. 

"... Here's Nestor 
Instructed by the antiquary times, 
He must, he is, he cannot but be wise.'^ 

Shakespeare. 

Niceph'orus. A name of Jupiter, meaning the 
bearer of victory. 

Nid'hogg. In Scandinavian mythology the drag- 
on who dwells in Nastrond. 

Nifl'heim. The Scandinavian hell. It was sup- 
posed to consist of nine vast regions ot ice 
beneath the North Pole, where darkness reigns 
eternally See Nastrond. 

Night, see Nox. 

Nightingale, see Philomela. 

Nightmare, see Incubus. 

Ni'lus, a king of Thebes, who gave his name to the 
Nile, the great Egyptian river. 

Nine, The, see Muses. 

Ni'obe was a daughter of Tantalus, and is the 
personification of grief. By her husband Am- 
phion she had seven sons and seven daugh- 
ters. By the orders of Latona the father and 
sons were killed by Apollo, and the daugh- 
ters (except Chloris) by Diana. Niobe, being 
overwhelmed with grief, escaped further 
trouble by being turned into a stone. 



96 THE youth's 

No'mius. A lawgiver ; one of the names of Apollo. 
This title was also given to Mercury for the 
part he took in inventing beneficept laws. 

Noms. Three Scandinavian goddesses, who 
wove the woof of human destiny. The three 
witches in Shakespeare's "Macbeth" have 
their origin in the Scandinavian Noms. 

No'tus. Another name for Auster, the south 
wind. 

Nox was the daughter of Chaos, and sister of 
Erebus and Mors. She personified night, 
and was the mother of Nemesis and the 
Fates. 

Nundi'na. The goddess who took charge of chil- 
dren when they were nine days old — the day 
(Nona dies) on which the Romans named 
their children. 

Nuptia'lis. A title of Juno. When the goddess 
was invoked under this name the gall of the 
victim was taken out and thrown behind the 
altar, signifying that there should be no gall 
(bitterness) or anger between married people. 

Nu'riel. In Hebrew mythology the god of hail- 
storms. 

Nycte'lius. A name given to Bacchus, because 
his festivals were celebrated by torchlight. 

Nymphs, This was a general name for a class 
of inferior female deities who were attend- 
ants of the gods. Some of them presided 
over springs, fountains, wells, woods, and 



DICTIONARY OF MYTHOLOGY. 97 

the sea. They are spoken of as land -nymphs 
or Naiads, and sea-nymphs or Nereids, 
though the former are associated also with 
fountains and rivers. The Dryads were for- 
est-nymphs, and the Hamadryads were 
nymphs who lived among the oak-trees — 
the oak being always specially venerated by 
the ancients. The mountain-nymphs were 
called Oreads. 

" With flower-inwoven tresses torn, 
The nymphs in twilight shade 
Of tangled thickets mourn.'" 

Milton. 

Ny'sas. The names of the nymphs by whom Bac- 
chus was nursed. See Dionysius. 

Ny'sasus. A name of Bacchus, because he was 
worshiped at Nysa, a town of -Ethiopia. 

Ny'sus. A king of Megara who was invisible by 
virtue of a particular lock of hair. This lock 
his daughter Scylla cut off, and so betrayed 
her father to his enemies. She was changed 
into a lark, and the king into a hawk, and he 
still pursues his daughter, intending to pun- 
ish her for her treachery. 

\ 
Oan'nes. An Eastern (Babylonian) god, repre- 
sented as a monster, half-man, half -fish. He 
was said to have taught men the use of letters 
in the day-time, and at night to have retired 
to the depth of the ocean. 
Oath, see Lapis. 
7 



qS the youth's 

Obam'bon. A devil of African mythology. 

Ocean, see Neptune. 

Ocean'ides. Sea-njrmphs, danghters of Oceanus 
and Tethys. Their numbers are variously esti- 
mated by different poets ; some saying there 
were as many as 3.000, while others say they 
were as few as sixteen. The principal of 
them are mentioned under their respective 
names, as Amphi trite, Doris, Metis, etc. 

Oce'anns, son of Coelus and Terra, and husband 
of Tethys. Several mythological rivers were 
called his sons, as Alpheus. Peneus. etc. , and 
his daughters were called the Oceanides. 
Some of the ancients worshiped him as the 
god of the seas, and invariably invoked his 
aid when they were about to start on a voy- 
age. He was also thought to personify the 
immense stream which it was supposed sur- 
rounded the earth, and into which the sun 
and moon and other heavenly bodies sank 
every day. 

Ocrid'ion. A king of Rhodes, who was deified 
after his death. 

Ocy'pcte. One of the Harpies, who infected 

everything she touched. The word means 

swift of flight. 
Ocy'roe. A daughter of Chiron, who had the 

gift of prophecy. She was metamorphosed 

into a mare. 
O'din. In Scandinavian mythology the god of 



DICTIONARY OF MYTHOLOGY. 99 

the universe, and reputed father of all the 
Scandinavian kings. His wife's name was 
Friga, and his two sons were Thor and Bal- 
der. The IVodm of the early German tribes. 

CE'agrus. King of Thrace, and father of Orpheus. 

CEd'ipus. A son of Laius, King of Thebes, best 
known as the solver of the famous enigma 
propounded by the Sphinx. In solving the 
riddle CEdipus unwittingly killed his father, 
and, discovering the fact, he destroyed his own 
eyesight, and wandered away from Thebes, 
attended by his daughter Antigone. CEdipus 
is the subject of two famous tragedies by 
Sophocles. 

CEno'ne. Wife of Paris, a nymph of Mount Ida, 
who had the gift of prophecy. 

Ogyg'ia. An island, the abode of Calypso, in 
the Mediterranean Sea, on which Ulysses was 
shipwrecked. It was so beautiful in sylvan 
scenery that even Mercury (who dwelt on 
Olympus) was charmed with the spot. 

Ointment, see Phaon. 

Ole'nus. A son of Vulcan, who married Lathaea, 
a woman who thought herself more beautiful 
than the goddesses, an4 as a punishment she 
and her husband were turned into stone 
statues. 

Olives, see Aristseus. 

Olym'pius. A name of Jupiter, from Olympia, 
where the god had a splendid temple, which 



lOO THE YOUTH S 

was considered to be one of the seven won- 
ders of the world. 

Olym'pus was the magnificent mountain ou the 
coast of Thessaly, 9.000 feet high, where the 
gods were supposed to reside. There were 
several other smaller mountains of the same 
name. 

** High heaven with trembling the dread signal took. 
And all Olympus to the center shook." 

Pope. 

Oly'ras. A river near Thermopylae, which, it is 
said, attempted to extinguish the funeral 
pile on which Hercules was consumed. 

Omopha'g^a. A Bacchanalian festival at which 
some uncooked meats were served. 

Om'phale. The Queen of Lydia, to whom Her- 
cules was sold as a bondsman for three years 
for the murder of Iphitus. Hercules fell in 
love with her, and led an effeminate life in 
her society, wearing female apparel, while 
Omphale wore the lion's skin. 

Ona'nis. A priest of Bacchus, said to have mar- 
ried Ariadne after she had been abandoned 
by Theseus. 

Onu'va. The Venus of the ancient Gauls. 

Opaiia. Roman festivals in honor of Ops, held 
on 14th of the calends of January. 

Opiate-rod, see Caduceus. 

** Eyes . . . more wakeful than to drowse. 
Charmed with Arcadian pipe—the pastoral reed 
Of Hermes or his opiate-rod.'* 

Milton. 



DICTIONARY OF MYTHOLOGY. lOI 

Ops. Mother of the gods, a daughter of Coelus 
and Terra. She was known by the several 
names of Bona Dea, Rhea, Cybele, Magna 
Mater, Proserpine, Tellus, andThya; and oc- 
casionally she is spoken of as Juno and Min- 
erva. She personified labor, and is repre- 
sented as a comely matron, distributing gifts 
with her right hand, and holding in her left 
hand a loaf of bread. Her festival was the 
14th day of the January calends. 

Oracles, see Themis. 

Orae'a. Certain sacrifices offered to the god- 
desses of the seasons to invoke fair weather 
for the ripening of the fruits of the earth. 

Orbo'na. Roman goddess of children, invoked 
by mothers when they lost or were in danger 
of losing their offspring. 

Orchards, see Feronia. 

O'reades were mountain nymphs, attendants on 
Diana. 

Orgies. Drunken revels. The riotous feasts of 
Bacchus were so designated. 

Ori'on. A handsome hunter, of great stature, who 
was blinded by CEnopion for a grievous wrong 
done to Merope, and was therefore expelled 
from Chios. The sound of the Cyclops' ham- 
mers led him to the abode of Vulcan, who gave 
him a guide. He then consulted an oracle, 
and had his sight restored, as Longfellow 
, says, by fixing 

** His blank eyes upon the sun.** 



I02 THE YOUTH'S 

He was afterward slain by Diana and placed 
amongst the stars, where his constellation is 
one of the most splendid. 

Ori'thy'ia. A daughter of Erechtheus, whose 
lover, Boreas, carried her off while she was 
wandering by the river Ilissus. Her children 
were Zetus and Calais, two winged warriors 
who accompanied the Argonauts. 

Or'muzd. In Persian mythology the creator of 

all things. 

O'ros. The Egyptian Apollo. 

Orphans, see Or bona. 

Or'pheus was son of Apollo and the Muse Calliope. 
He was married to Eurydice; but she was 
stung by a serpent, and died. Orpheus went 
down to Hades to claim her, and played so 
sweetly with his lute that Pluto allowed 
Eurydice to return to the earth with Or- 
pheus, but on condition that he did not look 
behind him until he had reached the terres- 
trial regions. Orpheus, however, in his anzi- 
iety to see if she were following him , looked 
round, and Eurydice disappeared from his 
sight, instantly and forever. 

" Orpheus* lute was strung with poets' sinews.'* 

Shakespeare. 

Osi'ris. The Egyptian god of the sun, the source 
of warmth, life, and fruitfulness ; he was 
worshiped under the form of a sacred bull, 
named Apis. 



DICTIONARY OF MYTHOLOGY. IO3 

"... After these appeared 
A crew who, under names of old renown, 
Osiris, Isis, Orus, and their train. 
With monstrous shapes and sorceries abused 
Fanatic Egypt and her priests to seek 
Their wandering gods, disguised in brutish forms 
Rather than human.** 

Milton. 

Os'sa. One of the mountains of Thessaly (once 
the residence of the centaurs) which the giants 
piled on the top of Mount Pelion to enable 
them to ascend to heaven and attack the gods. 

Ox, see Apis. 

Owl, see ^sculapius and Itys. 



Pacto'lus. The river in Lydia where Midas 
washed himself by order of Bacchus, and the 
sands were turned to gold. 

Pae'an. A name given Apollo, from pcean, the 
hymn which was sung in his honor after he 
had killed the serpent Python. Paeans were 
solemn songs, praying either for the averting 
of evil and for rescue, or giving thanks for 
help vouchsafed. 

"With hymns divine the joyous banquet ends, 
The Pceans lengthened till the sun descends.** 

Pope. 

Palae'mon, or Melicerta, a sea- god, son of Atha- 
mas and Ino. 

Pa'les. The goddess of shepherds ^pd sheepf olds 



I04 THE youth's 

and protectress of flocks ; her festivals were 
called by the Romans Palilia. 

** Pomona loves the orchard. 
And Liber loves the wine, 
And Pales loves the straw-built shed. 
Warm with the breath of kine." 

Macaulat. 

** Great Pales help, the pastoral rites I sing, 
With humble duty mentioning each thing/* 

Pope. 

Palla'dium. A famous statue of the goddess Pal- 
las (Minerva) . She is sitting with a spear in 
her right hand, and in her left a distaff and 
spindle. Various accounts are given of the 
origin of the statue. Some writers say that 
it fell from the skies. It was supposed that 
the preservation of the statue would be the 
preservation of Troy ; and during the Trojan 
War the Greeks were greatly encouraged when 
they became the possessors of it. 

Parias» or Minerva. The name was given to 
Minerva when she destroyed a famous giant 
named Pallas. The Greeks called their god- 
dess of wisdom Pallas Athene. See Mintrva. 

" Apollo, Pallas, Jove, or Mercury, 
Inspire me that I may this treason find.** 

Shakespeare. 

Pan. The Arcadian god of shepherds, hunts- 
men, and country folk, and chief of the in- 
ferior deities, is usually considered to have 
been the son of Mercury and Penelope. After 




See page 73. 



Iris. 



DICTIONARY OF MYTHOLOGY. I05 

his birth he was metamorphosed into the 
mythical form in which we find him depicted, 
namely, a homed, long-eared man, with the 
lower half of the body like a goat. He is 
generally seen playing a pipe made of reeds 
of various lengths, which he invented him- 
self, and from which he could produce music 
which charmed even the gods. These are 
the Pan-pipes, or Syrinx, Pan's terrific ap- 
pearance once so frightened the Gauls when 
they invaded Greece that they ran away 
though no one pursued them ; and the word 
panic is said to have been derived from this 
episode. The Fauns, who greatly resembled 
Pan, were his attendants. 

** Piping on their reeds the shepherds go, 
Nor fear an ambush, nor suspect a foe.** 

POPE. 

Pando'ra, according to Hesiod, was the first 
mortal female. Vulcan made her of clay, 
and gave her life. Venus gave her beauty ; 
and the art of captivating was bestowed upon 
her by the Graces. She was taught singing 
by Apollo, and Mercury taught her oratory. 
Jupiter gave her a box, the famous "Pan- 
dora's Box," which she was told to give to her 
husband, Epimetheus, brother of Prometheus. 
As soon as he opened it there issued from it 
numberless diseases and evils which were 
soon spread all over the world, and from that 
moment they have afflicted the human race. 



Io6 THE youth's 

It is said that Hope alone remained in the 
box. Pandora means " the all-gifted. " 

** More lovely than Pandora, whom the gods 
Endowed with all their gifts.*' 

Milton. 

Panthe'on (lit. "the all-divine place"). The 
temple of all the gods, built by Agrippa at 
Rome, in the reign of Augustus (b.c. 27). 
It was 144 feet in diameter, and 144 feet high ; 
and was built in the Corinthian style of archi- 
tecture, mostly of marble; while its walls 
were covered with engraved brass and silver. 
Its magnificence induced Pliny to give it rank 
• among the wonders of the world. 

Pa'phia, a name of Venus. 

Pap'remis. The Egyptian Mars, 

Par'cae, The, were goddesses who presided over 
the destiny of human beings. They were 
also called the Fates, and were three in num- 
ber, Atropos, Clotho, and Lachesis. See 
Fates. 

Par'is, the son of Priam, king of Troy, and of his 
mother Hecuba. It had been predicted 
that he would be the cause of the destruction 
of Troy, and his father therefore ordered him 
to be strangled as soon as he was born ; but 
the slave who had been entrusted with this 
mission took the child to Mount Ida, and left 
it there. Some shepherds, however, found 
the infant and took care of him. He lived 
among them till he had grown to man's es- 



DICTIONARY OF MYTHOLOGY. I07 

tate, and he then married CBnone, a nymph 
of Ida. At the famous nuptial feast of Feleus 
and Thetis, Discordia, who had not been in- 
vited, attended secretly ; and when all were 
assembled, she threw among the goddesses 
a golden apple, on which was inscribed " Let 
the fairest take it." This occasioned a great 
contention, for each thought herself the fair- 
est. Ultimately, the contestants were reduced 
to three, Juno, Pallas (Minerva) , and Venus ; 
but Jove himself could not make these three 
agree, and it was decided that Paris should 
be the umpire. He was sent for, and each of 
the goddesses courted his favor by offering 
all sorts of bribes. Juno offered him power, 
Pallas wisdom, and Venus promised him the 
most beautiful woman in the world. Paris 
gave the golden apple to Venus. Soon after 
this episode Priam owned Paris as his son, 
and sent him to Greece to fetch Helen, who 
was renowned as being the most beautiful 
woman in the world. She was the wife of 
Menelaus, king of Sparta ; but during his ao- 
sence Paris carried Helen away to Troy, and 
this gave rise to the celebrated war between 
the Greeks and the Trojans, ^hich ended in 
the destruction of Troy. Paris was among 
the 676,000 Trojans who fell during or after 
the siege. 

Parnas'sides, a name common to the Muses, 
from Mount Parnassus. 

Pamas'sus, The mountain of the Muses in Pho- 



Io8 THE youth's 

cis, and sacred to Apollo and Bacchus. Any 
one who slept on this mountain became a 
poet. It was named after one of the sons of 
Bacchus. 

Par'thenon. The temple of Minerva (or Pallas) 
on the Acropolis at Athens. It was destroyed 
by the Persians, and rebuilt by Pericles. 

Par'thenos was a name of Juno, and also of 
Minerva. See Pallas. 

Pasiph'ae was the reputed mother of the Mino- 
taur killed by Theseus. She was said to be 
the daughter of Sol and Perseis, and her 
husband was Minos, king of Crete. 

Pasith'ea. Sometimes there are four Graces 
spoken of ; when this is so. the name of the 
fourth is Pasithea. Also called Aglaia. 

Pav'an, the Hindoo god of the winds. 

Peace, see Concordia. 

Peacock, see Argus. 

Peg'asus. The famous winged horse which was 
said to have sprung from the blood of Me- 
dusa when her head was cut off by Perseus. 
His abode was on Mount Helicon, where, by 
striking the ground with his hoof, he caused 
water to spring forth, which formed the foun- 
tain afterward called Hippocrene. 

"Bach spurs his faded 

Pegasus apace." BYRON. 

" Thy stumbllngr founder*d jade can trot as high 
As any other Pegasus can fly." 

Barl of Dorset. 



DICTIONARY OF MYTHOLOGY. 109 

**To turn and wind a fiery Pegasus, 
And witch the world with noble horsemanship.'* 

Shakespeare. 

Pe'leus. A king of Thessaly. who married 
Thetis, one of the Nereides. It is said that 
he was the only mortal who married an im* 
mortal. 

Pe'lias. A son of Neptune and Tyro. He 
usurped the throne of Cretheus, which Jason 
was persuaded to relinquish and take the 
command of the Argonautic expedition. 
On the return of Jason, Medea, the sorceress, 
undertook to restore Pelias to youth, but 
required that the body should first be cut up 
and put in a caldron of boiling water. When 
this had been done, Medea refused to fulfil 
her promise. Pelias had four daughters, 
who were called the Peliades. 

Pe'lias was the name of the spear of Achilles, 
which was so large that none could wield it 
but the hero himself. 

Pe'lion. A well -wooded mountain, famous for 
the wars between the giants and the gods, 
and as the abode of the Centaurs, who were 
expelled by the Lapithae. See Ossa, a mount, 
which the giants piled upon Pelion, to enable 
them to scale the heavens. 

** The gods they challenge, and affect the skies, 
Heaved on Olympus tottering Ossa stood ; 
On Ossa, Pelion nods with all his wood/' 

Pope. 

Pe'lops, son of Tantalus, king of Phrygia. His 



no THE YOUTH S 

father killed him, and served him up to be 
eaten at a feast given to the gods, who, when 
they found out what the father of Pelops had 
done, restored the son to life, and he after- 
ward became the husband of Hippodamia. 

Pena'tes. Roman domestic gods. The hearth of 
the house was their altar. See Lares. 

Perpetual Punishment, see Sisyphus. 

Perseph'one. The Greek name of Proserpine. 

Per'seus was a son of Jupiter and Danae, the 
daughter of Acrisius. His first famous ex- 
ploit was against the Gorgon, Medusa. He 
was assisted in this enterprise by Pluto, who 
lent him a helmet which would make him in- 
visible. Pallas lent him her shield, and Mer- 
cury supplied him with wings. He made a 
speedy conquest of the Gorgons, and cut off 
Medusa's head, with which he flew through 
the air, and from the blood sprang the 
winged horse Pegasus. As he flew along he 
saw Andromeda chained to the rock, and a 
sea-monster ready to devour her. He killed 
the monster, and married Andromeda. When 
he got back, he showed the Gorgon's head to 
King Polydectes, and the monarch was im- 
mediately turned into stone. 

*' Now on Daedalian waxen pinions stray. 
Or those which wafted Perseus on his way.** 

P. Lewis. ' 

Persuasion, goddess of, see Pitho. 

Pha'eton. A son of Sol, or, according to many 



DICTIONARY OF MYTHOLOGY. Ill 

mythologists, of Phoebus and Clymene. An- 
xious to display his skill in horsemanship, 
he was allowed to drive the chariot of the sun 
for one day. The horses soon found out the 
incapacity of the charioteer, became unman- 
ageable, and overturned the chariot. There 
was such great fear of injury to heaven and 
earth, that Jove, to stop the destruction, killed 
Phaeton with a thunderbolt. 

" Now Phaeton, by lofty hopes possessed. 
The burning seat with youthful vigor pressed.*' 

" The breathless Phaeton, with flaming hair, 
Shot from the chariot like a falling star 
That in a summer's evening from the top 
Of heaven drops down, or seems at least to drop." 

Addison. 

Pha'on. A boatman of Mitylene, in Lesbos, who 
received from Venus a box of ointment, with 
which, when he anointed himself, he grew so 
beautiful that Sappho became enamored of 
him ; but when the ointment had all been used 
Phaon returned to his former condition, and 
Sappho, in despair, drowned herself. 

Pheasant, see Itys. 

Philoct'etes was son of Poeas, and one of the 
companions of Jason on his Argonautic ex- 
pedition. He 'Was present at the death of 
Hercules, and received from him the poisoned 
arrows which had been dipped in the blood 
of Hydra. These arrows, an oracle declared, 
were necessary to be used in the destruction 
of Troy, and Philoctetes was persuaded by 



112 THE youth's 

Ulysses to go and assist at the siege. He ap- 
pears to have used the weapons with great 
dexterity and with wonderful effect, for Paris 
was among the heroes whom he l^illed. The 
story of Philoctetes was dramatized by the 
Greek tragedians ^schylus, Euripides, and 
Sophocles. 
Philome'la was a daughter of Pandion, king of 
Athens, who was transformed into a night- 
ingale. She was sister to Procne. who married 
Tereus, King of Thrace. The latter having 
offered violence to Philomela, her sister, 
Procne, came to her rescue, and to punish her 
husband slew her son Itylus, and at a feast 
Philomela threw Itylus 's head on the ban- 
quet table. 

•• Forth Hke a fury Philomela flew, 
And at his face the head of Itys' threw." 

Pope. 
** And thou, melodious Philomel, 
Asrain thy plaintive story tell." 

Sir Thomas Lyttleton. 

Phleg'ethon. A river of fire in the infernal re- 
gions. It was the picture of desolation, for 
nothing could grow on its parched and with- 
ered banks. Also called Pyriphlegethon. 

"... Infernal rivers ... 
. . . Pierce Phlegethon, 
Whose waves of torrent fire inflame with rage.** 

Milton. 

Phle'gon (burning) , one of the four chariot horses 
of Sol. 



DICTIONARY OF MYTHOLOGY. II 3 

Phle'gyas. Son of Mars and father of Ixion and 
Coronis. For his impiety in desecrating and 
plundering the temple of Apollo at Delphi, he 
was sent to Hades, and there was made to sit 
with a huge stone suspended over his head, 
ready to be dropped on him at any moment 

Phce'bus. A name of Apollo, signifying light 
and life. 

•* Gallop apace, you fiery-footed steeds. 
Toward Phoebus* lodging." 

Shakespeare. 

Phor'cus, or Percys. A son of Neptune, father 
of the Gorgon s. The same as Oceanus. 

Phryx'us, see Golden Fleece. 

Picum'nus. A rural divinity, who presided over 
the manuring of lands, also called Sterentius. 

Pi'cus. A son of Saturn, father of Faunus, was 
turned into a woodpecker by Circe, whose 
love he had not requited. 

Pier'ides. A name of the Muses, derived from 
Pieria, a fountain in Thessaly, near Mount 
Olympus, where they were supposed to have 
been born. Also, the daughters of Pierus, a 
' king of Macedonia, who settled in Boeotia. 
They challenged the Muses to sing, and were 
changed into magpies. 

Pie'tas. The Roman goddess of domestic affec- 
tion. 

Pillar, see Calpe. 

Pilum'nus. A rural divinity that presided 
8 



114 THE YOUTH'S 

the com while it was being ground. At Rome, 
he was hence called the god of bakers. 

Pine-Tree, see Atys. 

Pirith'ous. A son of Izion and great friend of 
Theseus, king of Athens. The marriage of 
Pirithous and Hippodamia became famous for 
the quarrel between the drunken Centaurs 
and the Lapithse, who, with the help of The- 
seus, Pirithous, and Hercules, attacked and 
overcame the Centaurs, many of whom were 
killed, and the remainder took to flight. 

Pi'thOy the goddess of Persuasion, daughter of 
Mercury and Venus. She is sometimes re- 
ferred to under the name of Suada. 

Plants, see Demogorgon. 

Pleasure, see Rembha. 

Plei'ades, The. Seven daughters of Atlas and 
Pleione. Their names were Electra, Alcy- 
one, Celaeno, Maia, Sterope, Taygete, and 
Merope. They were made a constellation, 
but as there are only six stars to be seen, the 
ancients believed that one of the sisters, 
Merope, married a mortal, and was ashamed 
to show herself among her sisters, who had 
all been married to gods. 

"... The grray 
Dawn and the Pleiades before him danced, 
Sheddingr sweet influence.^' 

Milton. 

Plu'to. King of the infernal regions. He was a 
. : son of Saturn and Ops, and husband of Pros- 



DICTIONARY OF MYTHOLOGY. II 5 

erpine, daughter of Ceres. He is sometimes 
referred to tinder the name Dis, and he per- 
sonifies hell. His principal attendant was the 
three-headed dog Cerberus, and about his 
throne were the Bumenides, the Harpies, and 
the Furies. 

" With equal foot, rich friend, impartial fate 
Knocks at the cottage and the palace gate. 

Night soon will seize, and you must go below, 
To story'd ghosts and Pluto*s house below." 

Creech. 

Plu'tus, the god of riches, was son of Jasion or 
lasius and Ceres (Demeter), the goddess of 
corn. He is described as being blind and 
lame ; blind because he so often injudiciously 
bestows his riches, and lame because for- 
tunes come so slowly. 

Plu'vius. A name of Jupiter, because he had 
the rain in his control. 

Podalir'ius. A famous surgeon, a son of ^scula- 
pius and Epione. His skill in medicine made 
him very serviceable among the soldiers in the 
Trojan war. 

Poet, see Parnassus. 

Poetry, see Apollo, Calliope, The Muses. 
Poisonous Herbs, see Circe. 
Poisonous Lake, see Avernus. 
PoU'ear. Son of Siva, the Hindoo god of wis- 
dom. 



Il6 THE youth's 

Poriuz. Twin brother of Castor. Their father 
was Jupiter and their mother Leda. He and 
his brother form the constellation Gemini. 
His Greek name was Polydeuces. Castor and 
Pollux are also known under the name of 
Dioscuri, the presiding deities of public games 
in Rome, Castor being the god of equestrian 
exercise, and Pollux the god of boxing. See 
iEdepol. 

Polybo'tes. One of the giants who made war 
against Jupiter. He was killed by Neptune. 

Polydec'tes was turned into stone when Perseus 
showed him Medusa's head. See Perseus. 

Polydeu'ces. The Greek name of Pollux. 

Polyhym'nia. Daughter of Jupiter and Mnemo- 
syne. One of the Muses who presided over 
singing and rhetoric. 

Polyphe'mus, one of the most celebrated of the 
Cyclops, a son of the nymph Thoosa and 
Neptune, or Poseidon, as the Greeks called the 
god of the sea. He captured Ulysses and 
twelve of his companions, and it is said that 
six of them were eaten. The remainder es- 
caped by the ingenuity of Ulysses, who de- 
stroyed Polyphemus *s one eye with a fire- 
brand. 

*• Charybdia barks and Polyphemus roars." 

Francis. 

Polyx'ena. Daughter of Hecuba and Priam, 
king of Troy. It was by her treachery that 
Achilles was shot in the heel. 




See page 79. 



Laocoon. 



DICTIONARY OF MYTHOLOGY. II7 

Pomo'nai The Roman goddess of fruit-trees and 

gardens. 

** So to the sylvan lodge 
They came, that like Pomona's arbor smiled 
With flowerets decked and fragrant smells." 

Milton. 
Poplar-Tree, see Heliades. 

Portu'nus (Palsemon) , son of Ino, was the Roman 

god of harbors. 
Poseidon. The Greek name of Neptune, god of 

the sea. 
Prac'riti. The Hindoo goddess of nature. 
Predictions, see Cassandra. 
Pri'am. The last king of Troy. See Paris. 
Pria'pus, the guardian of gardens and god of 

natural reproduction, was the son of Venus 

and Bacchus. 

" Priapus could not half describe the grace 
(Though god of gardens) of this charming place.'^ 

Pope. 
Pris'ca. Another name of Vesta. 

Pro'cris. Daughter of Erechtheus, king of 
Athens. See Cephalus, her husband. 

Prog'ne, wife of Tereus. Commonly called 
Procne, whose sister was Philomela. See 
Itys and Tereus. 

*' Complaining oft gives respite to our grief, 
From hence the wretched Progne sought relief." 

F. Lewis. 

Prome'theus, the son of Japetes and father of 
Deucalion. He presumed to make clay men, 
^pd animate them with fire which he had 



Il8 THE youth's 

Stolen from heaven. This so displeased Ju- 
piter that he sent him a box full of evils, 
which Prometheus refused; but his brother 
Epimetheus. not so cautious, opened it, and 
the evils spread over all the earth. Jupiter 
then punished Prometheus by commanding 
Mercury to bind him to Mount Caucasus, 
where a vulture daily preyed upon his liver, 
which grew in the night as much as it had 
been reduced in the day, so that the punish- 
ment was a prolonged torture. Hercules at 
last killed the vulture and set Prometheus free. 

Prophecy, see Nereus. 

Proser'pine. A daughter of Jupiter and Ceres. 
Pluto carried her off to the infernal regions 
and made her his wife. She was known by 
the names of "the Queen of Hell," Hecate, 
Juno Inferna, and Libitina. She was called 
by the Greeks Persephone. 

" He sung, and hell consented 
1*0 hear the poet's prayer, 
Stern Proserpine relented, 
And gave him back the fair." 

F. Lewis. 

Pro'teus. A marine deity, who could foretell 
events and convert himself at will into all 
sorts of shapes. According to later legends, 
Proteus was a son of Poseidon. 

•* The changeful Proteus, whose prophetic mind, 
The secret cause of Bacchus' rage divined." 

The Lusiad. 

•* What chain can hold this varying Proteus fast?" 

BUDGELL. 



DICTIONARY OF MYTHOLOGY. II9 

Psy'che. The wife of Cupid. The name is 
Greek, signifying the soul or spirit. 

Pygma'lion. A famous sculptor who had re- 
solved to remain unmarried, but he made 
such a beautiful statue of a goddess that he 
begged Venus to give it life. His request 
being granted, Pygmalion married the ant- 
mated statue. 

" Few, like Pygmalion, doat on lifeless charms, 
Or care to clasp a statue in their arms." 

Py'lades. The son of Strophius, King of Pha- 
note, and husband of Electra ; famous on ac- 
count of his faithful friendship with Orestes. 

" His wine 
Was better, Pylades, than thine. 

... If you please 
To choose me for your Pylades." F. LEWIS. 

Pylo'tis. A Greek name of Minerva. 

Pyr'acmon, one of the chiefs of the Cyclopes. 

Pyr'amus and This'be. Two Babylonian lovers, 
the children of hostile neighbors. See Shake- 
speare's burlesque of the story of their loves, 
in "Midsummer Night's Dream." 

Py'rois (luminous). One of the four chariot 
horses of Sol, the Sun. 

Py'thia. The priestess of Apollo at Delphi, who 
delivered the answers of the oracle. Also the 
name of the Pythian games celebrated in 
honor of Apollp's victory over the dragon 
Python. 



l26 tHE YOUTH*S 

t*y'thon. A famous serpent killed by Apollo, 
which haunted the caves of Parnassus. See 
Septerion. 

Quadra'tus. A surname given to Mercury, be- 
cause some of his statues were four-sided. 

Quad'rifrons. Janus was sometimes depicted with 
four faces instead of the usual two, and he was 
then called Janus Quadrifrons. 

Qui'es. The Roman goddess of rest ; she had a 
temple just outside the Colline gate of Rome. 

Quie'tus. One of the names of Pluto. 

Quiri'nus. A name given to Mars during war- 
time ; Virgil refers to Jupiter under the same 
name. 

Quoit, see Hyacinthus. 

Race, see Atalanta. 

Radaman'thus, see Rhadamanthus. 

Rage, see Furies. 

Rainbow, see Iris. 

Ra'ma. A Hindoo god, who was the terrestrial 

representative of Vishnu. 
Ram's Hide, see Golden Fleece. 
Reeds, see Pan, also Syrinx. 
Rem'bha. The Hindoo goddess of pleasure. 
Reproduction, see Priapus. 
Rest, see Quies. 
Revenge, see Ate. 



DICTIONARY OF MYTHOLOGY. 121 

Rhadaman'thus, a son of Jupiter and Europa, was 
the ruler of the Greeks in the Asiatic islands, 
and judge of the dead in the infernal regions. 

*• These are the realms of unrelenting^ fate : 
And awful Rhadamanthus rules the state. 
He hears and judges each committed crime, 
Inquires into the manner, place, and time ; 
The conscious wretch must all his acts reveal, 
Loth to confess, unable to conceal; 
Prom the first moment of his vital breath, 
To the last hour of unrepenting death.*' 

Dryden. 

Rhamnu'sia. A name of Nemesis, from Rham- 
nus, a town in Attica, where she had a temple 
in which was her statue, made of one stone 
ten cubits high. 

Rhe'a. The Greek name of Cybele. She was a 
daughter of Uranus and Gaea, and was called 
Mother of the gods. 

Rhetoric, see Calliope, also Polyhymnia. 
Riches, see Plutus. 
Riddle, see Sphinx. 

Rim'mon. A Phrygian god of whom Milton 
says — 

"... Rimmon, whose delightful seat 
Was fair Damascus, on the fertile banks 
Of Abana and Pharpar, lucid streams.^' 

Riot, see Saturnalia. 

River of Fire, see Phlegethon. 

Roads, see Vialis. 

Robber, see Cacus, Coeculus. 



182 

Rom'ttltts. The traditional founder of Rome. 
He waf a son of Mars and Ilia, and twin 
brother of Remus. The infants were thrown 
into the Tiber, but were miraculously saved 
and suckled by a she-wolf, till they were 
found by Faustulus, a shepherd, who brought 
them up. Remus was killed in a quarrel 
with his brother, and Romulus became the 
first King of Rome. 

Rumi'a Dea. The Roman goddess of babes in 
arms. 

Ru'mina. Roman pastoral deities, who protected 
suckling cattle. 

Runci'a. The goddess of weeding or cleansing 
the ground. 

Sacrifices were ceremonious offerings made to 
the gods. To every deity a distinct victim 
was allotted, and the greatest care was al- 
ways taken in the selection of them. Any- 
thing in any way blemished was considered 
as an insult to the god. At the time of the 
sacrifice the people were called together • by 
heralds led by a procession of musicians. 
The priest, clothed in white, was crowned 
with a wreath made of the leaves of the tree 
which was sacred to the particular god to 
whom the sacrifice was offered. The victim 
had its horns gilt, and was adorned with a 
chaplet similar to that of the priest, and was 
decorated with bright-colored ribbons. The" 



DICTIONARY OF MYTHOLOGY. 1 23 

priest then said, "Who is here?" to which 
the spectators replied, "Many good people." 
"Begone all ye who are profane," said the 
priest ; and he then began a prayer addressed 
to all the gods. The sacrifice was begun by 
putting corn, frankincense, flour, salt, cakes, 
and fruit on the head of the victim. This 
was called the Immolation. The priest then 
took a cup of wine, tasted it, and handed it 
to the bystanders to taste also; some of it 
was then poured between the horns of the 
victim, and a few of the saturated hairs were 
pulled off and put in the fire which was burn- 
ing on the altar. Then, turning to the east, 
the priest drew with his knife a crooked line 
along the back of the beast from the head to 
the tail, and told the assistants to kill the 
animal. This was done directly, and the en- 
trails of the victim taken out and carefully 
examined by the Haruspices to find out what 
was prognosticated. The carcase was then 
divided, and the thighs, covered with fat, 
were put in the fire, and the rest of the ani- 
mal was cut up, cooked, and eaten. This 
feast was celebrated with dancing, music, 
and hymns, in praise of the god in whose 
honor the sacrifice was made. On great oc- 
casions as many as a hundred bullocks were 
offered at one time ; and it is said that Pythag- 
oras made this offering when he found out 
the demonstration of the forty-seventh propo- 
sition of the book of Euclid. 



124 THE YOUTH'S 

Sa'ga« The Scandinavian goddess of history. 

The word means a saw or saying; hence 

Sagas, which embody Scandinavian legends, 

and heroic or mythical traditions. 
Sag^tta'rius, see Chiron. 
Sails, see Daedalus. 
Sal'aman'ders. The genii who, according to 

Plato, lived in fire. 

"The spirites of fiery termagrants in flame, 
Mount up and take a Salamander's name.'* 

Pope. 

Sala'tia, or Salacia, a Roman goddess of the salt 
water. See Amphitrite. 

Sarii. The priests of Mars who had charge of 
the sacred shields. 

Salmo'neus. A king of Elis who, for trying to 
imitate Jupiter's thunders, was sent by the 
god straight to the infernal regions. 

Sa'lus. The Roman goddess of health. 

Sap'pho, a celebrated poetess, a native of Lesbos, 
who flourished in the seventh century b.c. 
Her only connection with the goddesses of the 
time is that the Greeks called her '* The tenth 
Muse." 

Sarcasm, see Momus. 

Sa'ron, a sea-god. 

Sarpe'don, son of Jupiter by Europa. He accom- 
panied Glaucus, when the latter set out to 
assist Priam against the Greeks in the Tro- 
jan War. He was slain by Patroclus. 



DICTIONARY OF MYTHOLOGY. 125 

Sat'urn, king of the Universe, was father of 
Jupiter, Neptune, and Pluto. These gods 
quarreled amongst themselves as to the di- 
vision of their father's kingdom, which ended 
in Jupiter having heaven and earth. Neptune 
the sea. and Pluto the infernal regions. 

Saturnalia. Festivals held in honor of Saturn 
about the i6th or i8th of December. Prin- 
cipally famous for the riotous disorder which 
generally attended them. 

Satur'nius. A name given to Jupiter, Neptune, 
and Pluto, as sons of Saturn. 

Satya'vra'ta. The Hindoo god oL law. The 
same as Menu. 

Sat'yrs. Spirits of the woodland, half men, half 
goats, and fond of wine and women. They- 
were the attendants of Dionysus, and were 
similar in most respects to the fauns who at- 
tended Pan. See Silenus. 

** Five satyrs of the woodland sort. 

With asses* hoofs, great goggle eyes, 
And double chins of monstrous size." 

Yalden. 

Scyl'la. A beautiful nymph who excited the 
jealousy of Neptune's wife, Amphitrite, and 
was changed by the goddess into a frightful 
sea-monster, which had six fearfully ugly 
heads and necks, and which, rising unexpect- 
edly from the deep, used to take off as many 
as six sailors from a vessel, and carry them 



126 THE youth's 

to the bottom of the sea. An alternative 
danger with the whirlpool, Charybdis, which 
threatened destruction to all mariners. 

" There on the ri^ht her dogs foul Scylla hides. 
Chary bdis roaring on the left presides.^* 

VIRGIL. 

Scyl'la. A daughter of Nysus, who was changed 
into a lark for cutting off a charmed lock of 
her father's hair. See Nysus. 

Sea, see Neptune. 

Seasons, see Vertumnus. 

Sea-Weed, see Glaucus. 

Sege'tia. A rural divinity who protected com 
during harvest-time. 

Sem. The Egyptian Hercules. 

Sem'ele, daughter of Cadmus and the mother 
of Bacchus (Dionysus), who was bom in a 
miraculous manner after Jupiter had visited 
her, at her special request, in all his terrible 
splendor. She was deified after her death, 
and named Thyone. 

Semi-Dei were the demi-gods. 

Semo'nes. Roman gods of a class between the 
"immortal" and the "mortal," such as the 
Satyrs and Fauns. 

Septe'rion. A festival held every nine years at 
Delphi in honor of Apollo, at which the vic- 
tory of that god over the Python was grandly 
represented. 



DICTIONARY OF MYTHOLOGY. 1 27 

Sera'pis. The Egyptian Jupiter, and generally 
considered to be the same as Osiris. See 
Apis. 

Serpent. The Greeks and Romans considered 
the serpent as symbolical of guardian spirits, 
and as such were often engraved on their 
altars. See ^sculapius, Apollo, Chimera, 
£urydice, and Medusa. 

*' Pleasing: was his shape, 
And lovely; never since of serpent kind, 
Lovelier; not those that in Illyria changed 
Hermione and Cadmus, or the god 
In Epidaurus, nor to which transformed 
Ammcnian Jove, or Capitoline, was seen.'^ 

Milton. 

Sesh'anag a. The Egyptian Pluto. 

Sewers, see Cloacina. 

Siiarp-sig4«tedness, see Lynceus. 

Shepherds, see Pan. 

Shields, see Ancilia. 

Ships, see Neptune. 

Silence, S60 Harpocrates and Tacita. 

Sile'nus. A Bacchanalian demi-god, the chief of 
the Satyrs. He is generally represented as a 
iat, drunken old man, riding on an ass, and 
crowned with flowers. 

" And there two Satyrs on the ground, 
Stretched at his ease, their sire Silenus found.** 

Singing, see Polyhymnia, Thanyris. 
Si'rens, The. Sea nymphs, who by their music 
allured mariners to destruction. To avoid the 



128 THE youth's 

snare when nearing their abode, Ulysses had 
the ears of his companions stopped with wax, 
and had himself tied to the mast of his ship. 
They thus sailed past in safety; but the 
Sirens, thinking that their charms had lost 
their powers, drowned themselves. 

Sis'yphus, son of ^olus and Enaretta. He was 
condemned to roll a stone to the top of a hill 
in the infernal regions, and as it rolled down 
again when he reached the summit, his pun- 
ishment was perpetual. 

** I turned my eye, and as I turned, surveyed 

A mournful vision ! The Sisyphian shade. 

With many a weary step and many a gro&n. 

Up the high hill he leaves a huge round stone, 

The huge round stone, resulting with a boun^ 

Thunders impetuous down, and smokes along taj» 

ground." 

Pnp» 

♦• Thy stone, O Sisyphus, stands stii:, 
Ixion rests upon his wheel, 
And the pale specters dance." 

F. Lewis* 

Si'va. In Hindoo mythology the "changer ot 
form.** He is usually spoken of as the ** De- 
stroyer and Regenerator. " 

Slaughter, see Furies. 

Slaves, see Feronia. 

Sleep, see Caduceus, Morpheus, and Somnus. 

Sleip'ner. The eight-legged horse of Odin, the 
chief of the Scandinavian gods. 

Sol. The sun. The worship of the god Sol is 




Winged Mercury. 



See page 86. 



DICTIONARY OF MYTHOLOGY. 1 29 

the oldest on record, and though he is some- 
times referred to as being the same as the god 
Apollo, there is no doubt he was worshiped 
by the Egyptians, Persians, and other na- 
tions long before the Apollo of the Greeks 
was heard of. See Surya. 

/* Sol through white curtains shot a timorous ray. 
And oped those eyes that must eclipse the day." 

Pope. 

Som'nus. The Roman god of sleep, son of Ere- 
bus and Nox (Night). He was one of the 
infernal deities, and resided in a gloomy cave, 
void of light and air. 

Sos'pita. A name of Juno, as the safeguard of 
women. She is called the "saving goddess." 

So'ter. A Greek name of Jupiter, meaning Sa- 
vior or deliverer. 

Soul, see Psyche. 

South Wind, see Auster. 

Spear, see Pelias. 

Sphinx, The. A monster having the head and 
breast of a woman, the body of a dog, the 
tail of a serpent, the wings of a bird, the 
paws of a lion, and a human voice. She lived 
in the country near Thebes, and proposed 
to every passer-by the following enigma: 
"What animal is that which walks on four 
legs in the morning, two at noon, and three 
in the evening. " CEdipus solved the riddle 
thus : Man is the animal ; for. when an in- 
fant he crawls on his hands and feet, in the 
9 



130 THE youth's 

noontide of life he walks erect, and as the 
evening of his existence sets in, he supports 
himself with a stick. When the Sphinx found 
her riddle solved she destroyed herself. 

Spider, see Arachne. 

Spindle, see Pallas. 

Spinning, see Arachne, Ergotis. 

Spring, see Vertumnus. 

Stable, see Augseas. 

Stars, see Aurora. 

Steren'tius. The Roman god who invented the 
art of manuring lands. See also Picumnus. 

Ster'opes. One of the Cyclopes. 

Stone, see Medusa and Phlegyas. 

Stone (rolling) , see Sisyphus. 

Streets, see Apollo. 

Stym'phali'des. The carnivorous birds destroyed 
in the sixth labor of Hercules. 

Styx. A noted river of hell, which was held in 
such high esteem by the gods that they always 
swore "By the Styx," and such an oath was 
never violated. The river has to be crossed 
ii. passing to the regions of the dead. See 
Achilles and Thetis. 

** To seal his sacred vo-w by Styx he swore:— 
The lake with liquid pitch,— the dreary shore.'* 

Dryden. 
"... Infernal rivers that disgorge 
Into the burning lake their baleful streams, 
Abhorred Styx, the 4oo4 of deadly hate,'* 



DICTIONARY OF MYTHOLOGY. I3I 

Sua'da, the goddess of Persuasion. See Pitho. 

Success, see Bonus Eventus. 

Sun, see Aurora, Belus, Sol, and Surya. 

Sunflower, see Clytie. 

Sura'de'vi. The Hindoo goddess of wine. 

Sur'geon, see Podalirius. 

Su'ry'a. The Hindoo god corresponding to the 

Roman Sol, the sun. 
Swallow, see Itys. 
Swan, see Cygnus and Leda. 
Swiftness, see Atalanta. 
Swine, see Circe. 
Sylphs. Genii who, according to Plato, lived in 

the air. 

** The light coquettes as Sylphs aloft repair, 
And sport and flutter in the fields of air." 

Pope. 

Sylves'ter. The name of Mars when he was in- 
voked to protect cultivated land from the 
ravages of war. 

Syrinx. Tbe name of the nymph who, to escape 
from the importunities of Pan, was by Diana 
changed into reeds, out of which he made 
his celebrated pipes, and named them "The 
Syrinx.** 

Tac'ita. The goddess of Silence. See Harpo- 

crates, also Horus. 
Tan'talus, Father of Niobe and Pelops, who, as 



132 THE YOUTH S 

a punishment for serving up his son Pelops 
as meat at a feast given to the gods, was 
placed in a pool of water in the infernal re- 
gions; but the waters receded from him 
whenever he attempted to quench his burning 
thirst. Hence the word "tantalizing". 

Speaking of this god. Homer's Ulysses says : 
" I saw the severe punishment of Tantalus. In 
a lake, whose waters approached to his lips, 
he stood burning with thirst, without the 
power to drink. Whenever he inclined his 
head to the stream, some deity commanded 
it to be dry. and the dark earth appeared at 
his feet. Around him lofty trees spread their 
fruits to view; the pear, the pomegranate, 
and the apple, the green olive, and the lus- 
cious fig qui vered before him, which, whenever 
he extended his hand to seize them, were 
snatched by the winds into clouds and ob- 
scurity." 

" There, Tantalus, along the Stygian bound, 
PoiM*s out deep groans,— his groans through hell 

resound. 
E'en in the circling flood refreshment' craves 
And pines with thirst amidst a sea of waves." 

"... And of itself the water flies 
All taste of living wight, as once it fled 
The lip of Tantalus." Milton. 

Tar 'tarns. An inner region of hell, to which the 
gods sent the exceptionally depraved. 

Telchi'nes. People of Rhodes, who were envious 
sorcerers and magicians. 



t)iCtiOKARV OF MVtHOLOGV. 13^ 

Tel'lus. A name of Cybele, wife of Saturn, and 
the Roman deity of mother-earth. 

Tempests, see Fro. 

Temple. An edifice erected to the honor of a 
god or goddess in which the sacrifices were 
offered. • 

Tenth Muse. Sappho was so called. 

Ter'eus was a son of Mars. He married Procne, 
daughter of the king of Athens, but became 
enamored of her sister Philomela, who, how- 
ever, resented his attentions, which so en- 
raged him that he cut out her tongue. When 
Procne heard of her husband's unfaithful- 
ness she took a terrible revenge (see Itys). 
Procne was turned into a swallow, Philomela 
into a nightingale, Itys into a pheasant, and 
Tereus into a hoopoe, a kind of vulture, some 
say an owl. 

Tergemi'na. A name of Diana, alluding to her 
triform divinity as goddess of heaven, earth, 
and hell. 

Ter'minus. The Roman god of boundaries. 

Terpsich'ore. One of the'nine Muses ; she pre- 
sided over dancing. 

Terra. The Earth ; one of the most ancient of 

the Grecian goddesses. 
Thales'tris. A queen of the Amazons. 
Thali'a. One of the nine Muses; she presided 

over festivals, pastoral poetry and comedy. 
Thali'a. One of the Graces. (See Charities) . 



1^4 TttE YOtJTH*S 

Tham'yris. A skilful singer, who presumed to 
challenge the Muses to sing, upon condition 
that if he did not sing best they might inflict 
any penalty they pleased. He was, of course, 
defeated, and the Muses made him blind. 

The'ia or Thea. A daughter of Uranus and 
Terra, wife of Hyperion. 

The'mis, a daughter of Coelus and Terra, and wife 
of Jupiter, was the Roman goddess of laws, 
ceremonies, and oracles. 

The'seus. One of the most famous of the Greek 
heroes. He was a son of ^geus. king of 
Athens. He rid Attica of Procrustes and other 
evil-doers, slew the Minotaur, conquered the 
Amazons and married their Queen. 

" Breasts that with sympathizing ardor glowed, 
And holy friendship such as Theseus vowed.'* 

BUDGELL. 

Thesmorpho'nius. A name of Ceres. 

The'tis. A sea-goddess, daughter of Nereus and 
Doris. Her husband was Peleus, king of 
Thessaly, and she was the mother of the 
famous Achilles, whom she rendered all but 
invulnerable by dipping him into the River 
Styx. See Achilles. 

Thief, see Laverna, Mercury. 

Thor. The Scandinavian war-god (son of Odin) , 
who had rule over the aerial regions, and, 
like Jupiter, hurled thunder against his foes. 

Thor's Belt is a girdle which doubles his strength 
whenever the war-god puts it on. 



DICTIONARY OF MYTHOLOGY. 1 35 

Thoth. The Mercury of the Egyptians. 

Thread of Life, see Fates. 

Thunderbolts, see Cyclops. 

Thunderer, The, Jupiter, See Tonitrualis. 

*' O king of gods and men, whose awful hand 
Disperses thunder on the seas and land, 
Disposing all with absolute command." 

VIRGIL 

" The eternal Thunderer sat enthroned in gold.'* 

Homer. 

*^ So when thick clouds enwrap the mountain's head, 
O'er heaven's expanse like one black ceiling spread; 
Sudden the Thunderer, with flashing ray, 
Bursts through the darkness and lets down the day/' 

Pope. 

Thy'a, a name of Ops. 

Thya'des. Priestesses of Bacchus, who ran wild 
in the hills, wearing tiger-skins and carrying 
torches. 

Thyr'sus, a kind of javelin or staff carried by 
Dionysus and his attendants. It was usually 
wreathed with ivy and topped by a pine-cone. 
See Bacchus. 

Tides, see Naryanan. 

Time (or Saturn) , The husband of Virtue and 

father of Truth. 
Tis-iph'one. One of the Furies, daughter of Nox 

and Acheron, who was the minister of divine 

vengeance upon mankind. 
Ti'tan. Elder brother of Saturn, who made war 



136 THE youth's 

against him, and was ultimately vanquished 
by Jupiter. 

Titans were the supporters of Titan in his war 
s^ainst Saturn and Jupiter. They were the 
sons of Uranus and Gaea, men of gigantic 
stature and of great strength. Hence our 
English word Titanic, 

Ti-tho'iins. The husband of Aurora. At the 
request of his wife the gods granted him im- 
mortality, but she forgot at the same time to 
ask that he should be granted perpetual youth. 
Th^ consequence was that Tithonus grew old 
and decrepit, while Aurora remained as fresh 
as the morning. The gods, however, changed 
him into a grasshopper, which is supposed to 
moult as it gets old, and grows young again. 

Tit'yus. A son of Jupiter. A giant who was 
thrown into the innermost hell for insulting 
Diana. He, like Prometheus, has a vulture 
constantly feeding on his ever-growing liver, 
the liver being supposed to be the seat of the 
passions. 

Toily see Atlas. 

Tombs, see Manes. 

Tongue, see Tereus. 

Tonitrua'lis, or Tonans. The Thunderer ; a name 
of Jupiter. 

Towers, see Cybele. 

Tragedy, see Melpomene. 

Trees, see Aristaeus. 



DICTIONARY OF MYTHOLOGY. 1 37 

Tribulation, see Echidna. 

Trifor'mis, see Tergemina. 

Triptoremus. A son of Oceanus and Terra. He 
was a great favorite of the goddess Ceres, 
who cured him of a dangerous illness when 
he was young, and afterwards taught him 
agriculture. She gave him her chariot, which 
was drawn by dragons, in which he carried 
seed-corn to all the inhabitants of the earth, 
and communicated the knowledge given to 
him by Ceres. Cicero mentions a Triptole- 
mus as the fourth judge of the dead. 

** Triptolemus, whose useful cares intend 
The common good." Pope. 

Triteri'ca. Bacchanalian festivals. 

Tri'tons were sons of Triton, a son of Neptune 
and Amphi trite. They were the trumpeters 
of the sea-gods, and were depicted as a sort 
of mermen— the upper half of the body being 
like a man, and the lower half like dolphins. 

Tri'via. A surname given to Diana, because she 
presided over all places where three roads 
meet. 

Tropho'nius. A legendary hero of architecture, 
and one of Jupiter's most famous oracles. 

Troy. The classic poets say that the walls of this 
famous city were built by the magic sound of 
Apollo's lyre. See Dardanus, Helen, Her- 
cules, Paris. 

Trumpeters, see Tritons. 



138 THE youth's 

Truth. A daughter of Time, because Truth is 
discovered in the course of Time. Democritus 
says that Truth lies hidden at the bottom of a 
well. 

Tutel'ina. A rural divinity — the goddess o£ 
granaries. 

Two Faces, see Jamit. 

Typhce'us, see Typhon. 

Ty'phon. A monster with a hundred heads who 
made war against the gods, but was crushed 
by Jove's thunderbolts, and imprisoned under 
Mount Etna. 

"... Typhon huge, ending in snaky twine." 

Milton. 

Ty'phon. In Egyptian mythology the god who 
tried to undo all the good work effected by 
Osiris. According to the Greek writer, He- 
siod, Typhon or Typhoeus was a monster 
giant, son of Terra and Tartarus. 

Urier. The Scandinavian god who presided over 
archery and duels. 

Ulys'ses. A noted king of Ithaca, whose exploits 
in connection with the Trojan war, and his 
adventures on his return therefrom, are the 
subject of Homer's Odyssey. His wife's 
name was Penelope, and he was so much en- 
deared to her that he feigned madness to get 
himself excused from going to the Trojan 
war ; but this artifice was discovered, and he 



DICTIONARY OF MYTHOLOGY. I39 

was compelled to go. He was of great help 
to the Grecians, and forced Achilles from his 
retreat, and obtained the charmed arrows of 
Hercules from Philoctetes, and used them 
against the Trojans. He enabled Paris to 
shoot one of them at the heel of Achilles, and 
so kill that charmed warrior. During his 
wanderings on his homeward voyage he was 
taken prisoner by the Cyclopes and escaped, 
after blinding Polyphemus, their chief. At 
^olia he obtained all the winds of heaven, 
and put them in a bag ; but his companions, 
thinking that the bags contained treasure 
which they could rob him of when they got to 
Ithaca, cut the bags, and let out the winds, 
and the ships were immediately blown back 
to iEolia. After Circe had turned his com- 
panions into swine on an island where he and 
they were shipwrecked, he compelled the god- 
dess to restore them to their human shape 
again. As he passed the islands of the Sirens 
he escaped their allurements by stopping the 
ears of his companions with wax, and fasten- 
ing himself to the mast of his ship. His wife 
Penelope was a pattern of constancy ; for, 
though Ulysses was reported to be dead, she 
would not marry any one else, and had the 
satisfaction of finding her husband return 
after an absence of about twenty years. The 
Greek name of Ulysses is Odysseus. 

*' To show what pious wisdom's power can do. 
The poet sets Ulysses in our view." • 



I40 THE YOUTH S 

Un'dine. A water-nymph, or sylph, who. ac- 
cording to fable, might receiye a human sotil 
by marrying a mortal. 

Unknown God, An. With reference to this God, 
nothing can be more appropriate than St. 
Paul's address to the Athenians, as recorded 
in the 17th chapter of the Acts of the Apostles : 

** Ye men of Athens, I preceive that in all things ye are 
too superstitious. For as I passed by, and beheld your 
devotions, I found an altar with this inscription, to the 
UNKNOWN OOD. Whom therefore ye ignorantly worship, 
him declare I unto you. God that made the world and 
all things therein, seeing that he is Lord of heaven and 
earth, dwelleth hot in temples made with hands; neither 
is worshiped with men^s hands, as though he needed any- 
thing, seeing he giveth to all life, and breath, and all 
things; and hath made of one blood all nations of men for 
to dwell on all the face of the earth, and hath determined 
the times before appointed, and the bounds of their habi- 
tation; that they should seek the Lord, if haply they 
might feel after him, and find him, though he be not far 
from every one of us: for in him we live, and move, and 
have our being; as certain also of your own poets have 
said, For we are also his offspring. Forasmuch then as 
we are the offspring of God, we ought not to think that 
the Godhead is like unto gold, or silver, or stone, graven 
by art and man's device. And the times of this ignorance 
God winked at ; but now commandeth all men every- 
where to repent: because he hath appointed a day, in 
the which he will judge the world in righteousness by 
that man whom he hath ordained; whereof Yi^ hath given 
assurance unto all men^ in that he hath raised him from 
the dead." 

Unx'ia. A name of Juno, relating to her protec- 
tion of newly married people. 
Ura'nia^ A daughter of Jupiter and Mnemosyne 




See page H2. 



Venus de Milo. 



l)lCTlONAkV Of MVtHOtOGY. 141 

—one of the Muses who presided over astron- 
omy. 

Ura'nus, literally, heaven. Son and husband of 
Gaea, the Earth, and father of Chronos 
(Time) and the Titans. The Greek name of 
Coelus ; his descendants are sometimes called 
Uranides. 

Ur'g^s. A name of Pluto, signifying the Im- 
peller. 

Ur'sa Major, see Calistro. 
Ur'sa Mi 'nor, see Areas. 
Usurers, see Jani. 

Ut'gard Lo'ki. In Scandinavian mythology the 
king of the giants. 

Valhal'la. The Scandinavian temple of immor- 
tality, inhabited by the souls of heroes slain 
in battle. 

Va'li. The Scandinavian god of archery. 

Valleys, see Vallonia. 

Vallo'nia. The goddess of valleys. 

Varu'na. The Hindoo Neptune— generally rep- 
resented as a white man riding on a sea- 
horse, carrying a club in one hand and a rope 
or noose to bind offenders in the other. 

Ve'dius. The same as Vejovis. 

Vejo'vis. "Little Jupiter"— a name given to 
Jupiter when he appeared without his thunder. 

Veju'piter, see Vejovis. 



14^ THE YOUTH'S 

Vengeance, see Nemesis. 

Ve'nus. The goddess of beauty, and mother of 
love. She is said to have sprung from the 
foam of the sea, and was immediately carried 
to the abode of the gods on Olympus, where 
they were all charmed with her extreme 
beauty. Vulcan married her, but she per- 
mitted the attentions of others of the gods, 
and notably of Mars, their offspring being 
Hermione, Cupid, and Anteros. After this 
she left Olympus and fell in love with Adonis, 
a beautiful youth, who was killed when hunt- 
ing a wild boar. Venus indirectly caused the 
Trojan War, for, when the goddess of discord 
had thrown among the goddesses the golden 
apple inscribed "To the fairest," Paris ad- 
judged the apple to Venus, and she inspired 
him with love for Helen, wife of Menelaus. 
king of Sparta. Paris carried off Helen to 
Troy, and the Greeks pursued and besieged 
the city (see Helen, Paris, and Troy). Ve- 
nus is mentioned by the classic poets under 
the names of Aphrodite, Cypria, Urania, As- 
tarte, Paphia, Cythera, and the laughter- 
loving goddess. Her favorite residence was 
at Cyprus. Incense alone was usually offered 
on her altars, but if there was a victim it was 
a white goat. Her attendants were Cupids 
and the Graces. 

Verti'cor'dia. A Roman name of Venus, signify- 
ing the power of love to change the hard- 



DICTIONARY OF MYTHOLOGY. I43 

hearted. The corresponding Greek name 
. was Epistrophia. 

Vertum'nus (" the Turner. " " Changer") . God of 
spring, or, as some mythologists say, of the 
seasons ; the husband of Pomona, the goddess 
of fruits and orchards. 

Ves'ta, daughter of Saturn and Cybele, was the 
goddess of the hearth and its fire. She had 
under her special care and protection a, fa- 
mous statue of Minerva, before which the 
Vestal Virgins kept a fire or lamp constantly 
burning. 

Ves'tal Vir'gins were the priestesses of Vesta, 
whose chief duty was to see that the sacred 
fire in the temple of Vesta was not extin- 
guished. They were always selected from 
the best families, and were under a solemn 
vow of chastity, and compelled to live per- 
fectly pure lives. 

Via'lis. A name of Mercury, because he presided 
over the making of roads. 

Vic'tory. A goddess, the daughter of Styx and 
Acheron, generally represented as flying in 
the air holding out a wreath of laurel. Her 
Greek name is Nike (Nice ) . See Nicephorus. 

Vidor. A Scandinavian god, who could walk on 
the water and in the air. The god of silence 
(corresponding with the classic Harpocrates) . 

Virtue. A goddess worshiped by most of the 
ancients under various names. The way to 



144 THE YOUTH S 

the temple o£ honor was through the temple 
of virtue. 

Virtuous Women, see Juno. 

Vish'nu. The Preserver, the principal Hindoo 
goddess. 

Volu'pia, see Angeronia. 

Vul'can, the god of fire, was the son of Jupiter 
and Juno. He offended Jupiter, and was by 
him thrown out of heaven ; he was nine days 
falling, and at last dropped into Lemnos with 
such violence that he broke his leg. and was 
lame forever after. Vulcan was married to 
Venus. He is supposed to have formed Pan- 
dora out of clay. His servants were the Cy- 
clopes. He was the patron deity of black- 
smiths, and as the smelter or softener of 
metal bears also the name of Mulciber. 

" Men call him Mulciber; and how he fell 
From heaven, they fabled, thrown by angry Jove, 
Sheer o'er the crystal battlements." 

Milton. 

Vulcan-al'ia were Roman festivals in honor of 
Vulcan, at which the victims (certain fish 
and animals) were thrown into the fire and 
burned to death. 



War, see Bellona, Chemos, Mars. 
Water, see Canopus. 
Water-Nymphs, see Doris. 
Wax Tablets, see Calliope. 



DICTIONARY OF MYTHOLOGY. 1 45 

Wealth, see Cuvera. 

Weaving, see Ergatos. 

Weeding, see Runcina. 

Weights and Measures, see Mercury. 

Well, see Truth. 

West Wind, see Favonius. 

Winds, see Aurora, Auster, Boreas, Zephyr. 

Wine, see Bacchus. Suradevi. 

Wisdom, see Pollear, Minerva. 

Woden, the Anglo-Saxon form of the Scandi- 
navian god Odin ; Wednesday is called after 
him. 

Women's Safeguard, see Sospita. 

Woodpecker, see Picus. 

Woods, see Dryads. 

World, see Chaos. 

Xan'thus, the name of the wonderful horse of 
Achilles. 

Ya ma. The Hindoo devil, generally represented 

as a terrible monster of a green color, with 

flaming eyes. 
Yg'dra'sil. The famous ash-tree of Scandinavian 

mythology, under which the gods held daily 

council. 
Y'mir. The Scandinavian god, corresponding to 

Chaos of the classics. 

Youth (perpetual) , see Tithonus. 
10 



146 DICTIONARY OF MYTHOLOGY. 

Zeph'yr or Zeph'yrus. The west wind and god of 
flowers, a son of Astraeus and Aurora (Eos) . 
See Favonius. 

•• Wanton Zephyr, come away. 

The sun, and Mira^s charming eyes. 

At thy return more charming grow. 
With double glory they appear. 
To warm and grace the infant year.'' 

John Hughes, 1700. 

Ze'tes, with his brother Calais, drove the Harpies 
from Thrace. 

Ze'thus, twin brother of Amphion. He was the 
son of Antiope and Zeus. See Amphion. 

Zeus (zus). The Greek name of Jupiter, the 
greatest god in Grecian aythology. He was 
the god of the sky and its phenomena, and as 
such was worshiped on the highest mountains, 
on which he was enthroned. From Zeus 
come all changes in the sky or the winds ; he 
is the gatherer of the clouds which dispense 
fertilizing rain ; and is also the thunderer and 
hurler of lightning. 



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What is Barter ? What is a Tax ? 

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Silver Question ? What is a Corporation- 
How did Paper come to be Mills ? 

used in Place of Cpin ? What is a Corporation— 
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Here is a book full of the real things and coil- 
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The models here— every one a complete address 
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Besides giving complete directions for the organization and 
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Government OmitoU Immigratiom 

Our Foreifi^n Policy* The Dcense Questioa* 

The Tariff The Suffrage* 

The Currency Question* Postaj[e« 
Transportation*, Our Commercial Policy* 

And many others. 

There is also a list of *' questions" suitable for debate^ several of 
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AText-Book on Le tter-Writing 

CLOTH— 75 ce nts Postp aid~i65 pages 

Believing that the social and business career of 
our youth demands that as much attention should be 
bestowed upon Letter-Writing in our schools, as 
upon Grammar, Orthography, Penmanship, and 
other elementary studies, we have published a text- 
book showing the correct structure, composition, and 
uses of the various kinds of letters, including busi- 
ness letters. There have been added classified lists 
of abbreviations, foreign words and phrases most fre- 
quently used ; and important postal information. 

Our endeavor has been not only to produce just the book to 
guide the youth and the adult in social correspondence and the 
business man in commercial letter- writing, but also to provide ihe 
teacher with a text-book that can with confidence be placed in the 
hands of the pupils, boys and girls, to be studied by them like a 
text- book on any other subject for class recitations. That our 
book has been carefully planned for this purpose, and the matter 
conveniently arranged for class-room work, the following list of 
the CONTENTS bears evidence : 

Part I.— Lbttxrs, Notes, and Postal Cards. ^. 
KINDS OP LETTERS. Social, Domestic. Introductory ; Business, 
Persona1,Official: Miscellaneous; Public, or Open. Postal Cards. 
STRUCTURE OF LETTERS. Materials; The Heading, The Intro- 
duction, The Body, The Conclusion, Folding, The Superscrip- 
tion, The Stamp. Type-writer Correspondence. 
THE RHETORIC OF LETTERS. General Principles, Special Ap- 
plications. Style and Specimens of Social Letters; of Business 
Letters; of Notes. 

Part II.— Orthography and Punctuation. 
RULES. For Forming Derivatives, etc.; For Capitals ; For Punctua- 
tion ; Special Rules. « 

Part III.— Miscellaneous. 
Classified Abbreviations; Foreign Words, Phrases; Postal In- 
formation. 

To teachrrs we will send postpaid at 2oi discount one extt$mnation copy 
with a view to introductioHf if this leaflet is enclosed with the order, 

HINDS & NOBLE, Publishers of 

How to Punctuate Correctly, Price 25c. 

Likes and Opposites (Synonyms and Antonyms), Price 50c. 

Composition Writing Made Easy, Price 75c. 

Bad English, Price 30c. 

New York City. 

Schoolbooks 0/ all publishers at one store. 



Another Synonym Book 

so cents— Likes and Oppositcs— Cloth. 

The publishers are not going to apologize for adding 
one more to the already numerous list of books of syno- 
nyms. In this field, as in'others, there are books and books. 
But as yet there is no other just like this. And the one 
persuading reason which induced the publishers to produce 
this book is their discovery, in their business as general 
schoolbooksellers, of a very wide demand for exactly the 
book that this is. 

The truth is that the average writer or speaker is not 
studying synonyms as an abstract, scientific subject, and 
therefore has little use for an exhaustive work like Roget*s 
Thesaurus which requires one to search through too many 
columns of words in order to find the word desired. The 
writer at work on his paragraph, or the speaker preparing 
his " extempore speech," generally has on the end of his 
pen or tongue a certain word that does not come instantly 
to mind, and he wants to find that word ** quick." Such 
a writer — be he the student at school, the teacher at his 
desk, the preacher in his study, the penny-a-liner, the 
stenographer at his keyboard, or the merchant in business 
hours— is not after an array of out-of-the-way words with 
which to astonish people. But he js trying to recall one 
certain elusive word. He knows that word when he sees 
it ; and he wants a book of hand^ size in which by look- 
ing for it, he can see that word without delay. 

Now there are already several such books, but most of 
them don't give the antonyms, or opposites — an extremely 
useful, and really necessary feature, because enabling one 
to find the unremembered word even when his only clue is 
some other word that has the opposite meaning. 

So while compiling this list of synonyms and their 
opposites we have tried carefully and faithfully to omit 
words which the average writer or speaker does not care 
to use on ordinary occasions ; but we have with equal 
care and just as faithfully tried to include just that word 
in every case, which, as we all so often confess, ^^ would 
exactly express my idea if I could only recall it " but which 
word persists in eluding us though actually on the end of 
our tongue. 

HINDS & NOBLE, Publishers 

NewYofkOty 

Schoolbooks of all publishers at one store. 



i:($$on$ on manners 

Adapted to 

Grammar Schools^ High Schooh 

and Academies 



Author of '* How to Teach Manners " and " Ethics for 
Home and School." 



By Julia M* Dewey 

How TO Teach Manners " and 
Home and School." 

Cloth^ i6o pages. Price^ 75 cents. 

List of Gmtents 
Lesson I — Manners in General. 
Lesson II — Manners at Home. 
Lesson III — Manners at School. 
Lesson IV — Manners on the Street. 
Lesson V— Manners at the Table. 
Lesson VI — Manners in Society. 
Lesson VII— Manners at Church. 
Lesson VIII — Manners Toward the Aged. 
Lesson IX — Manners at Places of Amusement. 
Lesson X — Manners in Traveling. 
Lesson XI — Manners in Places of Business. 
Lesson XII — Manners in Making and Receiving 

Gifts, 
Lesson XIII — Manners in Borrowing. 
Lesson XIV — Manners in Correspondence. 

Price for introduction^ to cents. Will take other works on 
Manners in exchan^^e^ and make a generous allowance for 
the*n. 

Hinds & Noble, Publishers 

New York Qty 



Usm% on morals 

Adapted to 

Grammar Schools^ High Schools 

and Academies 

By Julia M* Dcwcy 

Author of " How to Teach Manners " and * Bthics for 
Home and School." 



Cloth, 304 pages. 



Price, yS <:^9its. 



List of Contents 



Lesson I — The Study of 
Morals. 

Lesson II — Duties to 
the Body. 

Lesson III — Cleanli- 
ness. 

Lesson IV — Dress and 
Surroundings. 

Lesson V — Exercise, 
Recreation, etc. 

Lesson VI — Industry. 

Lesson VII — Economy. 

Lesson VIII — Honesty. 

Lesson IX— Truthful- 
ness. 

Lesson X — Time. 

Lesson XI — Order. 

Lesson XII — Courage. 

Lesson XIII — Love. 



Lesson XIV— Benevo- 
lence. 

Lesson X V— F o r g i v e- 
n ess. 

Lesson XVI — Kindness. 

Lesson XVII -Kind, 
ness to Animals. 

Lesson XVIII— Friends 

Lesson XIX — The 
Home. 

Lesson XX— The School 

Lesson XXI-=-The Com- 
munity. 

Lesson XXII —The 
State. 

Lesson XXIII— Self 
Culture. 

Lesson XXIV— Nature. 

Lesson XXV— Art 

Lesson XXVI— Reading 



Price for introduction, 60 cents. IVill take other works on 
Morals in exchange^ and make a generous allowance for them. 

Hinds & Noble, Publishers 

New York aty | 



Over one handred pieces that have actmaify tuktm frimn Id 
PriM Speaking CoatesU. 



Pieces 
That 



Ha^e Taken 
Prizes 

Selected by A. H. Cndg» author of ^'Crai^s New 
Comwum Scho0l Question Book** (of which over 189,- 
000 copies have been sold) and Binney Gunnison, 
(Harvard), Instructor in the School of Expression, 
Boston, Mass., and author of **New Dialogues and 
Plays,'' 

The oompilen spent'nearly three years' time in col- 
lecting the pieces for this book. All have actually 
taken one ot more prizes at some Prize Speaking 
Contest. 

Among the selections will be found: The A^pir- 
aHons of the American People ; The Storming of 
Mission Ridge; Opfortunitus of the Scholar; The 
Elements of National Wealth ; Duty of Literary Men 
to America; The Future of the Philippines; True 
Courage; The Boat Race ; The Teacher the Hope of 
America; A Pathetic Incident of the Rebellion ; The 
Permanence of Grants Fame; The Province of History; 
The Sermon; The Yacht Race; The Soul of the 
Violin; Oi^ions Stronger Than Armies; Not Guilty. 



Bound in cloth. Price $1.2$ 



HINDS & NOBLE, Publ^shm 
31-33^ West 15th St* New York Qty 



These new pieces are just the kind that will arouse an audience 
to-the highest pitch of enthusiasm. ^ 

New 
Pieces 
That Witt 
Take Prizes 

Selected and adapted by Harriet Blackstone, Teacher 
of Elocution and Reading, Galesburg High School, 
Galesburg, III. 

To satisfy the constantly increasing demand for mw 
Pieces for Prize Speaking Contests, the author (with the 
permission of the authors and publishers) has adapted 
a number of the choicest selections from the most ceU" 
brated works of our best known writers. 

Among others will be found: Alice's Flag — from 
Alice of Old Vincennes, by Maurice Thompson ; The 
Wonderful Tar Baby— from Uncle Remus^ by Joel 
Chandler Hairis; Through the Flood— from Beside 
the Bonnie Brier Bush^ by Ian MacLaren ; The Shep- 
herd's Trophy— from Bob, Son of Battle, by Alfred 
Ollivant , Grandma Keeler Gets Grandpa Keeler Ready 
for Sunday School— from Cape Cod Folks ^ by Sally 
Pratt McLean ; The Angel and the Shepherds — from 
Ben Hur, by Lew Wallace ; The Queen's Letter — from 
Rupert of Hentzau, by Anthonv Hope ; etc. Each 
selection is especially suited for Pnze Speaking Contests. 



Bound in cloth. JVice $1.2$ 



HINDS & NOBLE, Publishets 
3J-33-35 West I5th St. New York City 



Yale men know and the New Haven Unum 
says : " The question of what m the world to 
gvot a frUnd\% solved by 

SONGS OF ALL THE COLLEGES 

which 18 alike suitable for the collegian of 

the past, for the student of the present, and 

for the boy {or fir I) with hopes: also for the 

music-loving sister and a fellow's best girl.'' 

**All the NBW song$^ all ttu old songs^ 

and the songs Pofttlar at all the colleges : 

a welcome gift tn any home any where. 

flJiO— BOOK STORES. MU8I0 DBALEBS.— $1.80 

HIKDS dp SrOBIiE. Publishers. 

New York 

Bchoolbooks of all pabliahen at one store 



Embarrassing, isn*t it, when we run across the name 
of some god or goddess, in the daily paper, or in a poem, 
not to know? Or perhaps one just fails to enjoy per- 
fectly a beautiful painting or engraving or piece of statu- 
ary, because ignorant of the myth implied, or, may be, one 
misses the point of some classical allusion in a speechr, a 
lecture, a sermon, or at the play. 

And how one's memory is piqued when one can't re- 
call the story, though once familiar! How the matter 
^'sticks in the mind,** pestering us until it all comes back 
to us; and then we're annoyed to think we couldn't recall 
the connection on the instant, and we wish there were 
some way to oe saved all the pother. 

Well, there is a way .' 

Just have at hand a convenient little book that irives 
the name of every god and goddess, or hero whose name 
is ever likely to be broached. Not a tome^ with encyclo- 
paedic fullness of description ! No ! Bu. just an alpha- 



1000 MYTHOLOGICAL CHARACTERS 

75 Cents BRIEFLY DESCRIBED Postpaid 



Hinds & Noble, Publishers 

3J-33 35 We:.t J5lh Street, New York City 

Schoolbooks of all publishers at one store 



Who's Who in History? 



txsiical list, as it were, for ready reference, enabling one 
to find aad locate the personage instanter : and quite 
enough description to enable one to connect with the 
f/i;ry— just enough to rescue one from seeming so distress- 
ingly ignorant^ as if one had nt ver even heard of Pallas, 
or Aphrodite, or Thalia, or Ariadne. Can you tell as 
many, say, as four different but quite familiar names 
of Minerva ? How about Diogenes' tub and his sun- 
shine? Xanthippe? 

Just such a book is published by the undersigned. 

Two books, in fact; one giving the wyikological char- 
acters — the gods and goddesses ; the other identifying the 
real people— the heroes *ind heroines— and locating the 
places, and describing the things notable in ancient 
history. The title and price of one of these books is 
named below, and of the other in the similar panel on 
the reverse page. Both books have a number o/Jull' 
^age illustrations. 



1000 CLASSICAL CHARACTERS 

75 Cents BRIflFLY DESCRIBED Postpaid 



Hinds & Noble/ Publishers 

3J-33 35 West J5th Street, New York Gty 

Schoolbooks of all publishers at one store